The addition of baffles and suspended fabrics for attached growth to accumulate and reduce pollutants has been suggested for many years (Polprasert and Agarwalla,
1995; Reynolds et al., 1975). Commercial fabrics are relatively new for the removal of ammonia. The carriers are plastic ribbons or wheels that are installed in the aerated zone to provide surface area for the growth of microorganisms. Given adequate surface area, nitrifying microorganisms can grow and multiply on the plastic surfaces and achieve ammonia removal. The aerated cell does not have to be completely mixed, which is required in the recycle and SBR approaches. The increase in oxygen demand exerted by the attached growth microorganisms must be provided. Solids that drop from the biomass carriers settle or pass to following lagoon cells. Sludge buildup will increase, but the transfer of solids to subsequent facultative lagoons will anaerobicly reduce the volume, and the need for sludge removal will be affected very little.
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