Design limits Process design
CiviI and mechanicaI detaiIs
Define the volume and composition of the waste to be treated
Determine which, if any, of the natural systems are compatible for the particular waste and the site conditions and requirements Determine the waste constituent that controls the design Pond systems Aquatic systems Wetland systems Terrestrial systems Sludge management On-site systems
Collection network in the community, pump stations, transmission piping, etc.
Not covered in this text; see Metcalf & Eddy (1981, 2003)
Not covered in this text; see Metcalf & Eddy, (1981, 2003)
and more conventional mechanical technologies. Numerous comparisons have documented these cost and energy advantages (Middlebrooks et al., 1982; Reed et al., 1979). It is likely that these advantages will remain and become even stronger over the long term. In the early 1970s, for example, about 400 municipal land treatment systems were using wastewater in the United States. That number had grown to at least 1400 by the mid-1980s and had passed 2000 by the year 2000. It is further estimated that a comparable number of private industrial and commercial systems also exist. These process selection decisions have been and will continue to be made on the basis of costs and energy requirements.
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