Groundwater Flow Velocity

The actual flow velocity in a groundwater system can be obtained by combining Darcy's law, the basic velocity equation from hydraulics, and the soil porosity, because flow can occur only in the pore spaces in the soil.


Kh = Horizontal saturated permeability, mid (ft/d; m/d).

n = Porosity (as a decimal fraction; see Figure 2.4 for typical values for in situ soils).

Equation 3.4 can also be used to determine vertical flow velocity. In this case, the hydraulic gradient is equal to 1 and Kv should be used in the equation.

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