Fish

Fish have been grown in treated wastewaters for centuries, and where toxics are not encountered the process has been successful. Many species of fish have been used in wastewater treatment, but fish activity is temperature dependent. Most grow successfully in warm water, but catfish and minnows are exceptions. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are critical and the presence of un-ionized ammonia is toxic to the young of larger species. Detailed studies of fish in wastewater stabilization ponds have been conducted by Coleman (1974) and Henderson (1979). Numerous studies of fish culture have been conducted around the world (Reed et al., 1995).

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