Effects of Sludge Freezing

Percent Solids Content

Before After

Location and Sludge Type Freezing Freezing

Cincinnati, Ohio

Wastewater sludge, with alum 0.7 18

Water treatment, with iron salts 7.6 36

Water treatment, with alum 3.3 27 Ontario, Canada

Waste-activated sludge 0.6 17

Anaerobically digested 5.1 26

Aerobically digested 2.2 21 Hanover, New Hampshire

Digested, wastewater sludge, with alum 2-7 25-35

Digested primary 3-8 30-35

Source: Data from Farrell(1970), Reed et al. (1984), Rush and Strickland (1979), and Schleppenbach (1983).

used for preliminary estimates, but the final design should be based on actual weather records for the site and the calculation procedure described earlier.

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