Design Features and Expected Performance for Aquatic Treatment Units


Oxidation pond

Facultative pond

Partial-mix aerated pond

Storage and controlled-

discharge ponds Hyacinth ponds

Hyacinth ponds

Treatment Goals


Secondary Secondary, polishing Secondary, storage, polishing Secondary

AWT, with secondary input

Climate Needs

Warm None None None Warm Warm

Typical Criteria

Detention Time (days)

3-5; 1-1.5 5-8; 1.5-2.5 6.5-20; 2-6 10-16; 3-5 <5; <1.5 <3; <1

Organic Loading (lb/ac-d; kg/ha-d)

Effluent Characteristics (mg/L)

BOD, 20-40 TSS,80-140 BOD, 30-40 TSS,40-100 BOD, 30-40 TSS,30-60 BOD, 10-30 TSS,10-40 BOD, <30 TSS,<30 BOD, <10 TSS,<10 TP, <5 TN, <5

a First cell in system designed as a facultative or aerated treatment unit.

Note: AWT, advanced water treatment; BOD, biological oxygen demand; TSS, total suspended solids; TP, total phosphorus; TN, total nitrogen. Source: Data from Banks and Davis (1983), Middlebrooks et al. (1981), and USEPA (1983).

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