Daphnia are filter feeders, and their main contribution to wastewater treatment is the removal of suspended solids. Daphnia cultured in wastewater is very sensitive to pH because high pH values result in the production of un-ionized ammonia, which is toxic to the Daphnia. To be effective, shading is required to prevent the growth of algae that will result in high pH values during the daytime. The addition of acid and gentle aeration may be necessary. Brine shrimp survive only in saline waters, which limits their application in wastewater treatment. Laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments have been conducted, but the environmental and management requirements make the process uneconomical.
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