The cost data in this section were obtained, in part, from site visits to four operational FWS constructed wetland systems, sponsored by USEPA's Center for Environmental Research Information (CERI) in 1997 and from related published sources. The four systems were: Arcata, California; Gustine, California; Ouray, Colorado; and West Jackson County, Mississippi. To provide a common base for cost comparisons all costs have been adjusted, with the appropriate Engineering News Record (ENR) Construction Cost Index (CCI) factor to August 1997 (ENR-CCI = 5854). The major items included in the capital costs of FWS constructed wetlands are:

• Site investigation

• Clearing and grubbing

• Excavation and earthwork

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