Composting

Composting is a biological process for the concurrent stabilization and dewatering of sludges. If temperature and reaction time satisfy the required criteria, the final product should meet the class A pathogen and vector attraction reduction requirements (see Chapter 3). The three basic types of compost systems are (USEPA, 1981a):

• Windrow — The material to be composted is placed in long rows, which are periodically turned and mixed to expose new surfaces to the air.

• Static pile — The material to be composted is placed in a pile, and air is either blown or drawn through the pile by mechanical means. Figure 9.2 illustrates the various configurations of static pile systems.

• Enclosed reactors — These can range from complete, self-contained reactor units to structures that partially or completely enclose static pile or windrow-type operations. The enclosure in these latter cases is usually for odor and climate control.

Screened compost

Wood chips and sludge

Porous base: Wood chips or compost

Nonperforated pipe except for water condensate drain holes

Filter pile screened compost

Screened compost

Wood chips and sludge

Porous base: Wood chips or compost

Nonperforated pipe except for water condensate drain holes

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Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

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