Commercial and Industrial Wastewaters

Both SSF and FWS wetlands can be suitable for commercial and industrial wastewaters, depending on the same conditions described above for municipal wastewater. Wastewater characterization is especially important for both commercial and industrial wastewaters. Some of these wastewaters are high in strength, low in nutrients, and high or low in pH and contain substances that may be toxic or inhibit biological treatment responses in a wetland. High-strength wastes and high concentrations of priority pollutants are typically subjected to an anaerobic treatment step prior to the wetland component. Constructed wetlands, both SSF and FWS types, are currently in use for wastewater treatment from pulp and paper operations, oil refineries, chemical production, and food processing. In most cases, the wetland component is used as a polishing step after conventional biological treatment. The performance expectations for these wetlands were described in Section 6.3 of this chapter. System design follows the same procedures described in Section 6.5 through Section 6.9. A pilot study may be necessary when unfamiliar toxic substances are present or for design optimization for removal of priority pollutants.

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