Condition Required Data Type of Analysis
As rain, as snow, annual averages,
Frequency, annual distribution Frequency Frequency Assess aerosol risk
Storm events Temperature Wind maxima, minima Intensity, duration
Length of frost-free period Direction, velocity
Evapotranspiration Annual and monthly averages Annual distribution
Source: Adapted from Taylor, G.L., in Proceedings of the Conference of Applied Research and Practice on Municipal and Industrial Waste, Madison, WI, September
chance of flooding in a given year by means of a black-and-white overprint. Other detailed flood information is typically available from local offices of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and local flood-control districts. If the screening process identifies potential sites in flood-plain areas, local authorities should be consulted to identify regulatory requirements before beginning any detailed site investigation.
Riparian water laws, primarily in states east of the Mississippi River, protect the rights of landowners along a watercourse to use the water. Appropriative water rights laws in the western states protect the rights of prior users of the water. Adoption of any of the natural concepts for wastewater treatment can have a direct impact on water rights concerns:
• Site drainage, both quantity and quality, may be affected.
• A nondischarging system, or a new discharge location, will affect the quantity of flow in a body of water where the discharge previously existed.
• Operational considerations for land treatment systems may alter the pattern and the quality of discharges to a water body.
In addition to surface waters in well-defined channels or basins, many states also regulate or control other superficial waters and the groundwater beneath the surface. State and local discharge requirements for the appropriate case should be determined prior to initiation of design. If the project has any potential for legal entanglement, a water rights attorney should be consulted.
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