Biochemical Oxygen Demand Constructed Wetlands

(BOD) Removal in Free Water Surface


Areata, California

Benton, Kentucky

Cannon Beaeh, Oregon

Cle Elum, Washington

Ft. Deposit, Alabama

Gustine, California

Iselin, Pennsylvania

Listowel, Ontario, Canada

Ouray, Colorado

West Jaekson County, Mississippi

Sacramento County, California

BOD Influent


26.8 38

32.8 75

140 56.3



BOD Effluent

Percent Removal

83 71


Gearheart et al. (1989)

62 USEPA (1993a)

84 USEPA (1993a)

79 USEPA (1993a)

75 Crites (1996)

Herskowitz et al. (1987)

Andrews (1996)

USEPA (1993a)

Nolte Associates (1999)

The reducing conditions in mature FWS constructed wetlands resulting from flooding are conducive to denitrification. If nitrified wastewater is applied to a FWS wetland, the nitrate will be denitrified within a few days of detention. Nitrogen removal is limited by the ability of the FWS system to nitrify. When nitrogen is present in the nitrate form, nitrogen removal is generally rapid and complete. The removal of nitrate depends on the concentration of nitrate, the

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