G Land Treatment Systems

Land treatment systems include slow rate (SR), overland flow (OF), and soil aquifer treatment (SAT) or rapid infiltration (RI). In addition, the on-site soil absorption systems discussed in Chapter 10 utilize soil treatment mechanisms. The process of land treatment is the controlled application of wastewater to soil to achieve treatment of constituents in the wastewater. All three processes use the natural physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms within the soil-plant-water matrix. The SR...

Organism Concentration in Wastewater and Downwind Aerosol

Wastewater Concentration (No. 100 mL) x 106 69.9 7.5 0.8 0.22 0.007 1.1 0.39 0.005 Aerosol Concentration at Edge of Sprinkler Impact Circle (No. m3 of air sampled) 2578 5.6 1.1 0.4 11.3 71.7 < 1.0 1.4 Source Sorber, C.A. and Sagik, B.P., in Wastewater Aerosols and Disease, EPA 600 9-80-078, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, 1980, 23-35. Aerosol particles may be up to 20 im in diameter, which is large enough to transport bacteria or...

References

Bankston, J.L., Sola, D.L., Komor, A.T., and Dwyer, D.F. (2002). Degradation of trichlo-roethylene in wetland microcosms containing broad-leaved cattail and Eastern cottonwood, Water Res, 36, 153-1546. Bauman, P. (1965). Technical development in ground water recharge, in Chow, V.T., Ed., Advances in Hydroscience, Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 209-279. Bausum, H.T. (1983). Enteric Virus Removal in Wastewater Treatment Lagoon Systems, PB83-234914, National Technical Information Service,...

Surface disposal of biosolids

Standards (40 CFR Part 503) for the use or disposal of sewage sludge were published in the Federal Register on February 19, 1993 (Bastian, 1993 Crites et al., 2000 USEPA, 1994a). The regulation discusses land application, surface disposal, pathogen and vector attraction reduction, and incineration. Land application is defined as beneficial use of the sludge at agronomic rates, while all other placement on the land is considered to be surface disposal. Heavy-metal concentrations are limited by...