Natural Treatment Processes

Treatment of wastewater became recognized and accepted by the engineering profession as a viable treatment concept during the decade following passage of PL 92-500, and it is now considered routinely in project planning and design. Other natural concepts that have never been dropped from use include lagoon systems and land application of sludges. Wastewater lagoons model the physical and biochemical interactions that occur in natural ponds, while land application of sludges model conventional...

Aerosol Bacteria and Viruses at Pleasanton California Land Treatment System Using Undisinfected Effluent

Wastewater (number 100 mL) Upwind (number m3) Downwind (number m3) 10-30 m 31-80 m 81-200 m a ND, none detected system where undisinfected effluent was applied to the land. It seems clear that the very low aerosolization efficiencies (E) as defined in Equation 3.27 for sludge spray guns and truck-mounted sprinklers indicate very little risk of aerosol transport of pathogens from these sources, and this has been confirmed by field investigations (Sorber et al., 1984) Composting is a very...

Construction Considerations

The slope or terrace of an OF system must be graded to a uniform smoothness with no low spots or reversals in grade. Finish slopes of 1 to 8 are usually acceptable, although 2 is considered minimum in some states. Cross slopes should not exceed 0.5 , especially when finish slopes are 1 to 2 . Where extensive cut-and-fill operations are necessary, the slope should be watered and allowed to settle after rough grading. Any depressions should then be filled, and the slope should be final graded,...

Sludge Management Concepts

The freezing, composting, and reed bed concepts listed in Table 1.4 are intended to prepare the sludge for final disposal or reuse. The freeze thaw approach described in Chapter 9 can easily increase sludge solids content to 35 or higher almost immediately upon thawing. Composting provides for further stabilization of the sludge and a significant reduction in pathogen content as well as a reduction in moisture content. The major benefits of the reed bed approach are the possibility for...

Sludge Management and Treatment

Approximately 6.9 million ton of biosolids were generated in the United States in 1998, and about 60 of it was used beneficially in land applications, composting, and landfill cover. It is estimated that, by 2010, 8.2 million tons will be generated, and 70 of the biosolids is expected to be used beneficially (USEPA, 1999). Recycling options are described in various documents (Crites and Tchobanoglous, 1998 Crites et al., 2000 USEPA, 1994a, 1995a,c). Sludges are a common by-product from all...

Composting

Composting is a biological process for the concurrent stabilization and dewatering of sludges. If temperature and reaction time satisfy the required criteria, the final product should meet the class A pathogen and vector attraction reduction requirements (see Chapter 3). The three basic types of compost systems are (USEPA, 1981a) Windrow The material to be composted is placed in long rows, which are periodically turned and mixed to expose new surfaces to the air. Static pile The material to be...

Removal of BOD

As explained in Chapters 4 through 7, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) loading can be the limiting design factor for pond, aquatic, and wetland systems. The basis for these limits is the maintenance of aerobic conditions within the upper water column in the unit and the resulting control of odors. The natural sources of dissolved oxygen (DO) in these systems are surface reaeration and photosynthetic oxygenation. Surface reaeration can be significant under windy conditions or if surface...

Commercial Lagoon Nitrification Systems

Lagoon nitrification systems offered commercially include ATLAS-IS Internal clarifier system by Environmental Dynamics, Inc. CLEAR process SBR variant by Environmental Dynamics, Inc. Ashbrook SBR SBR system by Ashbrook Corporation AquaMat process Plastic biomass carrier ribbons by Nelson Environmental, Inc. MBBR process Plastic biomass carrier elements by Kaldnes North America, Inc. Environmental Dynamics, Inc. (EDI Columbia, MO) offers their Advanced Technology Lagoon Aeration System with...

Process Description

For engineering purposes, wetlands have been described in terms of the position of the water surface. The free water surface (FWS) wetland is characterized by a water surface exposed to the atmosphere. Natural marshes and swamps are FWS wetlands, and bogs can be if the water flows on top of the peat. Most constructed FWS wetlands typically consist of one or more vegetated shallow basins or channels with a barrier to prevent seepage, with soil to support the emergent macrophyte vegetation, and...

Trace Organics Removal

As described in Section 3.3 of Chapter 3 in this book, the removal of trace organic compounds occurs via volatilization or adsorption and biodegradation. The adsorption occurs primarily on the organic matter present in the system. Table 3.6 in Chapter 3 presents the removal of organic chemicals in land treatment systems removal exceeds 95 , except in a very few cases where > 90 was observed. The removal in constructed wetlands is even more effective as the HRT in wetland systems is measured...

Sludge Quality

The sludge organics pass through the gut of the worm and emerge as dry, virtually odorless castings. These are suitable for use as a soil amendment or low-order fertilizer if metal and organic chemical content are within acceptable limits (see Table 9.16 for metals criteria). Only limited quantitative data are available with regard to removal of pathogens with this process. The Texas Department of Health found no Salmonella in either the castings or the earthworms at a vermistabili-zation...

Comparisons of Various Equations Developed To Predict Ammonia Nitrogen and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen TKN Removal in

Equation Used To Estimate Correlation Coefficient TKN removal rate 0.809 (TKN loading rate) TKN removal rate 0.0946 (BOD5 loading rate) TKN fraction removed 0.0062 (detention time) NH3-N removal rate 0.869 (NH3-N loading rate) NH3-N removal rate 0.0606 (BOD5 loading rate) Comparison with Maximum Detention Time ( Difference) Ponds 1, 2, and 3 (mean monthly data) Total system (mean monthly data) Ponds 1, 2, and 3 (mean monthly data) All data (mean monthly data) Total system (mean monthly data)...

Normal Granular Media Filtration

Granular media filtration (rapid sand filters) has proven very successful as a means of liquid-solids separation. The simple design and operation processes make it applicable to wastewater streams containing up to 200 mg L suspended solids. Automation based on easily measured parameters results in minimum operation LEGEND o EAST FILTER o WEST FILTER LEGEND o EAST FILTER o WEST FILTER (fl < a > Jbo& ia & o o oj O rfT o rfb n o o a a a ASONDJFMAMJJA JULY 1904-DECEMBER 1905 FIGURE 5.5...

Natural Waste Treatment Systems An Overview

The waste treatment systems described in this book are specifically designed to utilize natural responses to the maximum possible degree when obtaining the intended waste treatment or management goal. In most cases, this approach will result in a system that costs less to build and operate and requires less energy than mechanical treatment alternatives. All waste management processes depend on natural responses, such as gravity forces for sedimentation, or on natural components, such as...

Special Site Requirements for Discharge Systems

Proximity to a surface water for discharge, impermeable soils or liner to minimize percolation, no steep slopes, out of flood plain, no bedrock or groundwater within excavation depth Proximity to a surface water for discharge, impermeable soils or liner to minimize percolation, slopes 0-6 , out of flood plain, no bedrock or groundwater within excavation depth Relatively impermeable soils, clay and clay loams, slopes 0-12 , depth to groundwater and bedrock not critical but 0.5-1 m desirable,...

Combined Sewer Overflow

Management of combined sewer overflow is a significant problem in many urban areas where the older sewerage network carries both stormwater and untreated wastewater. When peak storm events occur, the capacity of the wastewater treatment plant is exceeded in the past, this condition often led to a temporary bypass and discharge of the untreated CSO to receiving waters. Current regulations now prohibit that practice, and wetlands are being given strong consideration as a treatment alternative for...

Typical Pathogen Levels in Wastewater Sludges

Anaerobically Untreated Digested Pathogen (No. 100 mL) (No. 100 mL) The coarse-textured soils and high hydraulic loading rates used in SAT systems increase the risk of bacteria and virus transmission to groundwater aquifers. A considerable research effort, both in the laboratory and at operational systems, has focused on viral movement in SAT systems (Reed, 1979). The results of this work indicate minimal risk for the general case movement can occur with very high viral concentrations if the...

Lem Tec Biological Treatment Process

The LemTec Biological Treatment Process uses the LemTec Modular Cover to completely cover the system rather than a mat to retain duckweed (Figure 4.26). The process is still a lagoon-based treatment process composed of a series of aerobic cells followed by an anaerobic settling pond. Cells in series consist of a complete-mix aerated reactor, a partial-mix aerated reactor, a covered anaerobic settling pond, and a Lemna polishing reactor. The polishing reactor is aerated and has submerged,...

Wastewater Treatment Systems

Crites Joe Middlebrooks Sherwood C. Reed Boca Raton London New York Singapore A CRC title, part of the Taylor & Francis imprint, a member of the Taylor & Francis Group, the academic division of T& F Informa pic. 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper International Standard Book...

Specific Yield and Specific Retention

The porosity of a soil defines the maximum amount of water that a soil can contain when it is saturated. The specific yield is the portion of that water that 1 16 1 8 1 4 1 2 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 Maximum 10 grain size, mm FIGURE 2.3 Porosity, specific retention, and specific yield variations with grain size (in situ consolidated soils, coastal basin, California). 1 16 1 8 1 4 1 2 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 Maximum 10 grain size, mm FIGURE 2.3 Porosity, specific retention, and specific yield...

Areal Based Process Design Models

(Ce - C*) (C0 - C*) cxp(- t hlra) (6.27) A, (-QKmpM - C*) (C0 - C*> (6.28) Wetland effluent concentration (mg L). Wetland influent concentration (mg L). Annual hydraulic loading rate (m yr). Rate constant at temperature T (m yr). Annual influent wastewater flow rate (m3 yr) Note (1) These are areal-based models written in terms of hydraulic loading per unit area as compared to a detention time base for the model in Table 6.16. Detention time (HRT) and hydraulic loading (HLR) are directly...

Process Design Land Application

The basic design approach is based on the underlying assumption that, if sludge is applied at rates that are equal to the requirements of the design vegetation, over the time period of concern there should not be any greater impact on the groundwater than from normal agricultural operations. The design loading, based Source Data from Bastian (1993) and Crites et al. (2000). Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate Pollutant (kg ha) Molybdenum was dropped in 1994 and a new value has not been set. Check...

Case 3 Free Water Surface Wetland and Thickness of Ice Formation

Ice will commence to form on the surface of the FWS wetland when the bulk water temperature reaches 37.4 F (3 C) and will continue as long as the temperature remains at or below 32 F (0 C). In northern climates where extremely low air temperatures can persist for very long periods, the FWS wetland may not be a feasible year-round treatment because extensive ice formation can result in physical failure of the system. The thickness or depth of ice that will form over a 1-d period can be estimated...

Metal Removal in Hyacinth Ponds

27.6 g L 457.8 g L 18.2 g l 12.8 g L 0.4 g L 0.8 g L 0.9 g L a Average of three parallel channels, with a detention time about 5 days. Source Kamber, D.M., Benefits and Implementation Potential of Wastewater Aquaculture, EPA Contract Report 68-016232, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Washington, D.C., 1982. Excellent metal removals have been demonstrated in the type of constructed wetlands described in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. Tests at pilot...

Special Site Requirements for Nondischarging System

Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) or rapid infiltration (RI) Land application Composting, freezing, vermistabilization, or reed beds Sandy loams to clay loams > 0.15 to < 15 cm hr permeability preferred, bedrock and groundwater > 1.5 m, slopes < 20 , agricultural sites < 12 Sands to sandy loams 5 to 50 cm hr permeability, bedrock and groundwater > 5 m preferred, > 3 m necessary, slopes < 10 sites with slopes that require significant backfill for basin construction should be avoided...

Types of Plants

A wide variety of aquatic plants have been used in wetland systems designed for wastewater treatment. The larger trees (e.g., cypress, ash, willow) often preexist on natural bogs, strands, and domes used for wastewater treatment in Florida and elsewhere. No attempt has been made to use these species in a constructed wetland nor has their function as a treatment component in the system been defined. The emergent aquatic macrophytes are the most commonly found species in the marsh type of...

Summary of Typical Dissolved Air Flotation Performance University of Texas at Austin 1976

Air Floatation And Precipitation

Lubbock, Texas Komline-Sanderson (1972) El Dorado, Arkansas Bore et al. (1975) Logan, UT Stone et al. (1975) Sunnyvale, California Alum (225 mg L) acid added to pH 6.4 Alum (175 mg L) acid added to pH 6.0 to 6.3 a Including 33 pressurized (35-60 psig) recycle. b Including 30 pressurized (50 psig) recycle. c Including 100 pressurized recycle. d Including 25 pressurized (45 psig) recycle. e Including 27 pressurized (55-70 psig) influent. FIGURE 5.6 Types of dissolved-air flotation systems. (From...

References

Wastewater and sludge treatment by rooted aquatic plants in sand and gravel basins, in Proceedings of a Workshop on Low Cost Wastewater Treatment, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, April 1983, pp. 205-218. Bastian, R.K. and Reed, S.C., Eds. (1979). Aquaculture Systems for Wastewater Treatment, EPA 430 9-80-006, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Deese, P.L. (1981). Institutional Constraints and public acceptance barriers to utilization of...

Performance of Aerated Lagoon Intermittent Sand Filter Hamburg Plant

Average flow rate (m3 d) 1676 1673 Maximum flow rate (m3 d) 4530 3990 Raw Sewage BOD (mg L) TSS (mg L) TKN (mg L) TP (mg L) Aerated Cell HRT (d) BOD loading (kg m3-d) Aerated Cell Effluent BOD (mg L) TSS (mg L) TP (mg L) Facultative Lagoon HRT (d) Average BOD loading (kg 1000 m2-d) Cell 2 Effluent BOD (mg L) TSS (mg L) TKN (mg L) NH3-N (mg L) NO(T) N (mg L) TP (mg L) Annual surface loading (m3 m2) Surface loading (L m2-d) Filter Effluent BOD (mg L) TSS (mg L) TKN (mg L) NH3-N (mg L) NO(T)-N (mg...

Industrial Wastewater Secondary Treatment

For industrial wastewater with BOD concentrations of 400 to 2000 mg L or more, the organic loading rate is often limiting. The procedure for process design is as follows 1. Calculate the BOD load from the concentration and flow where BOD load is the daily BOD load (lb d kg d) 8.34 is the conversion factor Q is the flow (mgd m3 d) and C is the BOD concentration (mg L). 2. Calculate the land area from Equation 8.10 where A is the field area (ac), and 100 is the limiting loading of BOD (lb ac-d kg...

Hydraulic Loading Cycle

In SAT systems, the hydraulic loading cycle consists of an application (flooding) period followed by a drying (resting) period. This intermittent cycle is key to the successful performance of an SAT system. Application periods range from 1 to 9 d, while drying periods range from 5 to 20 d. Hydraulic loading cycles can be Hydraulic Loading Cycles for Soil Aquifer Treatment Hydraulic Loading Cycles for Soil Aquifer Treatment Source Adapted from Crites, R.W. and Tchobanoglous, G., Small and...

C0

Ct (25.68) e-(00555)(90) 0.17 pg L This represents about 99.8 removal. 3.3.2 Removal Performance The land treatment systems are the only natural treatment systems that have been studied extensively to determine the removal of priority-pollutant organic chemicals. This is probably due to the greater concern about groundwater contamination with these systems. Results from these studies have been generally positive. As indicated previously, the more soluble compounds such as chloroform tend to...

Cold Climate Operation

Storage is generally not provided for SAT even where cold winters would limit operation of SR or OF systems (Reed et al., 1995). Proper thermal protection is needed for pumps, piping, and valves (Reed and Crites, 1984). Wastewater can continue to be land applied in SAT basins throughout subfreezing weather provided the soil profile does not freeze with moisture in it. Approaches that can be used to avoid critical ice formation include 1. Design of one basin with excess freeboard to accept...

Intermittent Sand Filter Performance Treating Lagoon Effluents3

* Results for best overall performing 0.17-mm e.s. filters. b Uniformity coefficient. c Dairy waste. 11.3 69 19.6 11.7 40 (1977) 35.3 78 108 43.7 60 (I976) 1.0 95 10.9 1.1 90 Tupyi et al. 2.3 88 11.5 2.6 77 (1979) Mean Performance Values for Three Full-Scale Lagoon-Intermittent Sand Filter Systems Mean Performance Values for Three Full-Scale Lagoon-Intermittent Sand Filter Systems Flow (mgd) 0.637 NA. NA. 0.488 0.096 Flow (mgd) 0.637 NA. NA. 0.488 0.096 Source Data from Russell et al. (1980,...

B H M L

Use Equation 3.23 to determine the sorption coefficient during flow on the overland-flow terrace Removal of Organic Chemicals in Land Treatment Systems Removal of Organic Chemicals in Land Treatment Systems a Parker and Jenkins (1986). b Jenkins et al. (1985). c Love et al. (1983). d Not reported. 1.5 ) kSorb (0.4873)(0.0774) ksorb 0.0377 4. The overall rate constant is the sum of kvol and ksorb 5. Use Equation 3.24 to determine the toluene concentration in the overland-flow runoff

Hydraulic Design Procedures

The hydraulic design of constructed wetland systems is critical to their successful performance. All of the design models in current use assume uniform flow conditions and unrestricted opportunities for contact between the wastewater constituents and the organisms responsible for treatment. In the SSF wetland concept it is also necessary to ensure that subsurface flow conditions are maintained under normal circumstances for the design life of the system. These assumptions and goals can only be...

Pond Systems

Nitrogen can be removed in pond systems by plant or algal uptake, nitrification and denitrification, adsorption, sludge deposition, and loss of ammonia gas to the atmosphere (volatilization). In facultative wastewater treatment ponds, the dominant mechanism is believed to be volatilization, and under favorable conditions up to 80 of the total nitrogen present can be lost. The rate of removal depends on pH, temperature, and detention time. The amount of gaseous ammonia present at near-neutral pH...

Retardation Factors for Selected Organic Compounds

Material Retardation Factor (Rd) (PCBs) are effectively removed by most soils. Highly soluble compounds such as chloroform, benzene, and toluene are removed less efficiently by even highly organic soils. Because volatilization and biodegradation are not necessarily dependent on soil type, the removal of organic compounds via these methods tends to be more uniform from site to site. Table 3.1 presents retardation factors for a number of organic compounds, as estimated from several literature...

Calculation Methods

The mean daily air temperatures are used to calculate the AT value. The calculations take account of thaw periods, and a new sludge application is not made until the previous layer has frozen completely. One day is then allowed for a new sludge application and cooling, and calculations with Equation 9.3 are repeated to again determine the freezing time. The procedure is repeated through the end of the winter season. A tabular summary is recommended for the data and calculation results. This...

Summary

Rich's (1999) method provides a way to design for nitrification in an aerated lagoon. The equations in Table 4.22 are empirical and may or may not apply to a general design however, these equations will serve as an estimate of what might be expected in terms of nitrogen removal. Designing a lagoon system to nitrify a wastewater is not difficult if the water temperature and detention time are adequate to support nitrifiers and adequate dissolved oxygen is supplied. Obviously, providing recycle...

Sludge Management with Natural Methods

Freezing A method for conditioning and dewatering sludges in the winter months in cold climates more effective and reliable than any of the available mechanical devices can use existing sand beds Compost A procedure to further stabilize and dewater sludges, with significant pathogen kill, so fewer restrictions are placed on end use of final product Reed beds Narrow trenches or beds, with sand bottom and underdrained planted with reeds vegetation assists water removal Land apply Application of...

BOD Removal

The recommended approach to design for BOD removal in SSF wetlands is the volume-based detention time model, as expressed in Equation 7.13 As Q(lnQ - lnCe) KI(y)(n) (7.13) Average design flow (ac-ft d m3 d). Influent BOD concentration (mg L). Porosity of media (see Table 7.1). The temperature of the wastewater will affect the rate constant according to Equation 7.14 Rate constant at temperature T. 1.1 d-1. Most operational SSF wetlands in the United States have a treatment zone and operating...

Field Tests for Infiltration Rate

In some cases it may be acceptable to use NRCS estimates of soil permeability after confirming the actual presence of the specific soil on the site during a field investigation. This should be sufficient for pond and OF systems on soils with in h 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 cm h 0.25 0.5 0.8 1 1.5 2 2.5 20 30 40 60 80100 50 80 100 150 200 250 FIGURE 2.4 General relationship between specific yield and hydraulic conductivity for fine-textured soils. naturally low permeability. Concepts where water...

Rock Filters

In a rock filter, pond effluent travels through a submerged porous rock bed, causing algae to settle out on the rock surfaces as the liquid flows through the void spaces. The accumulated algae are then biologically degraded. Algae removal with rock filters has been studied extensively at Eudora, Kansas California Missouri and Veneta, Oregon (USEPA, 1983). Rock filters have been installed throughout the United States and the world, and performance has varied (Middlebrooks, 1988 Saidam et al.,...

Preface

Natural systems for the treatment and management of municipal and industrial wastewaters and residuals feature processes that use minimal energy and minimal or no chemicals, and they produce relatively lower amounts of residual solids. This book is intended for the practicing engineers and scientists who are involved in the planning, design, construction, evaluation, and operation of wastewater management facilities. The focus of the text is on wastewater management processes that provide...

Nutrients

A dual concern with respect to nutrients is that their control is necessary to avoid adverse health or environmental effects but the same nutrients are essential for the performance of the natural biological treatment systems discussed in this book. The nutrients of major importance for both purposes are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Nitrogen is the controlling parameter for the design of many land treatment and sludge application systems, and those aspects are discussed in detail in...

Vegetation

The presence of the vegetation and litter in the wetland system is absolutely critical for successful performance, but establishing this vegetation is probably the least familiar aspect of wetland construction for most contractors. In recent years, a number of specialty firms have emerged with the necessary expertise for selecting and planting the vegetation on these systems. The use of such a firm is recommended for large-scale systems if the construction contractor does not have prior wetland...

Hydraulic Loading Rates

Typical hydraulic loading rates on a single-stage filter range from 0.4 to 0.6 MG ac-d (0.37 to 0.56 m3 m2-d). If the SS in the influent to the filter will routinely exceed 50 mg L, the hydraulic loading rate should be reduced to 0.2 to 0.4 MG ac-d (0.19 to 0.37 m3 m2-d) to increase the filter run. In cold weather locations, the lower end of the range is recommended during winter operations to avoid the possible need for bed cleaning during the winter months.

Plant Functions

The terrestrial plants used in land treatment systems described in Chapter 8 of this book provide the major pathway for removal of nutrients in those systems. In those cases, the system design loading is partially matched to the plant uptake capability of the plants and the treatment area is sized accordingly. Harvesting then removes the nutrients from the site. The emergent aquatic plants used in wetlands also take up nutrients and other wastewater constituents. Harvesting is not, however,...

Cattail

Typical varieties are Typha angustifolia (narrow leaf cattail) and Typha latifolia (broad leaf cattail). Distribution is worldwide. Optimum pH is 4 to 10. Salinity tolerance for narrow leaf is 15 to 30 ppt broad leaf, < 1 ppt. Growth is rapid, via rhizomes the plant spreads laterally to provide dense cover in less than a year with 2-ft (0.6-m) plant spacing. Root penetration is relatively shallow in gravel (approximately 1 ft or 0.3 m). Annual yield is 14 (dw) ton ac (30 mt ha). Tissue (dw...

Setback Recommendations for Biosolids Systems

Biosolids injection, and only near remote single dwellings, small ponds, 10-yr high water mark for streams, roads no surface applications Injection or surface application near all of the above, plus springs and water supply wells injection only near high-density residential developments Injection or surface application at all of the above Source USEPA, Process Design Manual Land Application of Municipal Sludge, EPA 625 1-83016, CERI, Cincinnati, OH, 1983. have little concern with deep...

Operation and Maintenance

Operation and maintenance considerations include fine tuning of the application cycle, vegetation harvesting, and maintenance of the slope and runoff collection channels. Pest control must consider mosquitoes and invasions of army worms (WEF, 2001). Periodic mowing of the cover grass is necessary to maintain a healthy stand of grass and reduce bunching. A minimum of four mowings per year is recommended. The slopes should be dried completely before harvesting. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) has...

Sodium

Sodium is not limited by primary drinking-water standards, and the sodium content of typical municipal wastewaters is not a significant water-quality concern. A sudden change to high sodium content will adversely affect the biota in an aquatic system, but most systems can acclimate to gradual changes. Sodium and also calcium influence soil alkalinity and salinity, which in turn can affect the vegetation in land treatment systems. The growth of the plant and its ability to absorb moisture from...

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Natural Waste Treatment Systems An 1.1 Natural Treatment 1.1.2 Wastewater Treatment Concepts and Performance Expectations 2 1.1.2.1 Aquatic Treatment 1.1.2.2 Wetland Treatment 1.1.2.3 Terrestrial Treatment 1.1.2.4 Sludge Management 1.1.2.5 Costs and 1.2 Project Chapter 2 Planning, Feasibility Assessment, and Site Selection 11 2.1 Concept 2.1.1 Information Needs and 2.1.2 Land Area 2.1.2.1 Treatment 2.1.2.2 Free Water Surface Constructed 2.1.2.3 Subsurface Flow Constructed 2.1.2.4...

Land Treatment Systems

Nitrogen is usually the limiting design parameter for slow-rate land treatment of wastewater, and the criteria and procedures for nitrogen are presented in Chapter 8. Nitrogen can also limit the annual application rate for many sludge systems, as described in Chapter 9. The removal pathways for both types of systems are similar, and include plant uptake, ammonia volatilization, and nitrification deni-trification. Ammonium ions can be adsorbed onto soil particles, thus providing a temporary...

Conditions for Facultative Design Comparisons

Q design flow rate 1893 m3 day (0.5 mgd) Ce required effluent BOD 30 mg L T water temperature at critical part of year 10 C Ta average winter air temperature 5 C 4.2.6 Comparison of Facultative Pond Design Models Because of the many approaches to the design of facultative ponds and the lack of adequate performance data for the latest designs, it is not possible to recommend the best procedure. An evaluation of the design methods presented above, with operational data referenced in Table 4.2,...

Submerged Species

Submerged plant species have been used in deepwater zones of FWS wetlands and are a component in a patented process that has been used to improve water quality in freshwater lakes, ponds, and golf course water hazards. Species that have been used for this purpose include Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail, or hornwart), Elodea (waterweed), Potamogeton pectinatus (sago pond weed), Potamogeton perfoliatus (redhead grass), Ruppia mar tima (widgeongrass), Vallisne-ria americana (wild celery), and...

Site Evaluation

Site evaluation criteria for wetlands and other natural systems are given in Chapter 2 of this manual. The ideal site for a wetland would be within a reasonable distance from the wastewater sources and at an elevation permitting gravity flow to the wetland, between the wetland cells, and to the final discharge point. The site would be available at a reasonable cost, would not require extensive clearing or earthwork for construction, would have a deep nonsensitive groundwater table, and would...

B

FIGURE 9.2 Static pile composting systems (a) single static pile (b) extended aerated pile. The process does not require digestion or stabilization of sludge prior to composting, although there may be increased odor production issues to deal with when composting raw sludges. Composting projects are frequently designed based on 20 solids, but many operating projects are starting with 12 to 18 solids and as a result end up using more bulking agent to absorb moisture to get to approximately 40...

Terrestrial Treatment Methods

Typical design features and performance expectations for the three basic terrestrial concepts are presented in Table 1.3. All three are dependent on the physical, chemical, and biological reactions on and within the soil matrix. In addition, the slow rate (SR) and overland flow (OF) methods require the presence of vegetation as a major treatment component. The slow rate process can utilize a wide range of vegetation, from trees to pastures to row-crop vegetables. As described in Chapter 8, the...

Organic Priority Pollutants

Many organic priority pollutants are resistant to biological decomposition. Some are almost totally resistant and may persist in the environment for considerable periods of time others are toxic or hazardous and require special management. Volatilization, adsorption, and then biodegradation are the principal methods for removing trace organics in natural treatment systems. Volatilization can occur at the water surface of ponds, wetlands, and SAT basins in the water droplets from sprinklers used...

Procedures and Performance

At an operation in Lufkin, Texas, thickened (3.5 to 4 solids) primary and waste-activated sludge are sprayed at a rate of 0.05 lb ft2-d (0.24 kg m2-d) dry solids over beds containing worms and sawdust. The latter acts as a bulking agent and absorbs some of the liquid, assisting in maintaining aerobic conditions. An additional layer of sawdust, 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5 cm) thick, is added to the bed after about 2 months. The original sawdust depth was about 8 in. (20 cm) when the beds were placed in...

Cn

Where k1, k2, , kn are the reaction rates in cells 1 through n (all usually assumed equal for lack of better information) and t1, t2, , tn are the hydraulic residence times in the respective cells. Mara (1975) has shown that a number of equal volume reactors in series is more efficient than unequal volumes however, due to site topography or other factors, in some cases it may be necessary to construct cells of unequal volume. 4.3.1.1 Selection of Reaction Rate Constants The selection of the k...

OnSite Wastewater Systems

Effluent disposal options for on-site systems range from soil absorption in conventional gravity leachfields to water reuse after high-tech membrane treatment. Individual on-site systems are the most prevalent wastewater management systems in the country. This chapter describes the various types of on-site wastewater systems, wastewater disposal options, site evaluation and assessment procedures, cumulative areal nitrogen loadings, nutrient removal alternatives, disposal of variously treated...

Total Acidity Loading

Natural biochemical reactions in the soil drive the soil pH to a neutral condition. A range of wastewater pH between 3 and 11 has been applied successfully to land treatment systems. Extended duration of low pH can change the soil fertility and lead to leaching of metals. When the acidity is comprised of mostly organic acids, the water will be neutralized as the organics are oxidized. The acidity of wastewater can be characterized with the total acidity with units of mg CaCO3 per L. The total...

Comparison of Bed Type Operations

A Assumes year-round operation in a warm climate. b Annual loading in terms of dry solids. c Includes use of bed for conventional drying in summer. d Final solids amount depends on length of final drying period. e The vegetation is typically harvested annually. a Assumes year-round operation in a warm climate. b Annual loading in terms of dry solids. c Includes use of bed for conventional drying in summer. d Final solids amount depends on length of final drying period. e The vegetation is...

Metals

Metals at trace-level concentrations are found in all wastewaters and sludges. Industrial and commercial activities are the major sources, but wastewater from private residences can also have significant metal concentrations. The metals of greatest concern are copper, nickel, lead, zinc, and cadmium, and the reason for the concern is the risk of their entry into the food chain or water supply. A large percentage of the metals present in wastewater will accumulate in the sludges produced during...

Hydraulics Of Subsurface Flow Wetlands

Darcy's law, as defined by Equation 7.1, describes the flow regime in a porous media and is generally accepted for the design of SSF wetlands using soils and gravels as the bed media. A higher level of turbulent flow may occur in beds using very coarse rock, in which case Ergun's equation is more appropriate. Darcy's law is not strictly applicable to subsurface flow wetlands because of physical limitations in the actual system. It assumes laminar flow conditions, but turbulent flow may occur in...

For Batch Test in Pond 4 at Dickinson North Dakota

8 12 98 8 18 98 8 26 98 9 1 98 Average Source Courtesy of Pump Systems, Inc., Dickinson, ND. - - -0.1418 -0.0167 - Batch Process - NH4-N Removal Dickinson, ND Batch Process - NH4-N Removal Dickinson, ND FIGURE 4.31 Plot of NH4-N data using plug-flow model. FIGURE 4.31 Plot of NH4-N data using plug-flow model. A complete-mix section can be located anywhere in the flow train of an aerated lagoon system. Locating the complete-mix cell near the end of the flow train has the advantage of nitrifying...

Ground Surface Aspects

The major concerns relate to the potential for the contamination of surface vegetation or off-site runoff, as the persistence of bacteria or viruses on plant surfaces could then infect people or animals if the plants were consumed raw. To eliminate these risks, it is generally recommended in the United States that agricultural land treatment sites not be used to grow vegetables that may be eaten raw. The major risk is then to grazing animals on a pasture irrigated with wastewater. Typical...

Denitrification

Equation 7.16 to Equation 7.21 only account for conversion of ammonia to nitrate and predict the area required for a given level of conversion. When actual removal of nitrogen is a project requirement, it is necessary to consider the denitrification requirements and size the wetland accordingly. In the general case, most of the nitrate produced in a SSF wetland will be denitrified and removed within the area provided for nitrification and without supplemental carbon sources. FWS wetlands can be...

Biosolids Loadings for Preliminary Site Area Determination

Annual 5-yr intervals One time Annual a See Chapter 9 for a detailed description of options. b Metric tons per hectare (Mg ha) x 0.4461 lb ac. to determine which processes and sites are technically feasible. A complex screening procedure is not usually required for pond and wetland systems, because close proximity and access to the point of discharge are usually most important in site selection for these systems. For land application systems for wastewater and biosolids, the economics of...

Sources of Site Planning Information

Natural Resources Conservation Service soil surveys Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) maps National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports and maps Elevations, slope, water and drainage features, building and road locations Soil type, depth and permeability, depth to bedrock, slope Land use, water supply, sewerage systems Climatic data The land area estimates derived in this section are used with the information in Table 2.1 and Table 2.2 to...

Factors

Hardwood or mixed 3 Vegetation age (yr) Pine 7-35 6 Distance to surface waters (m) a Total rating 3-4, not suitable 5-6, poor 9-14, good > 15, excellent. Source Adapted from Taylor, G.L., in Proceedings of the Conference of Applied Research and Practice on Municipal and Industrial Waste, Madison, WI, September 1980. Rating Factors for Biosolids or Wastewater in Forests (Subsurface Factors) Condition Value3 Condition Value3 Rating Factors for Biosolids or Wastewater in Forests (Subsurface...

Fish

Fish have been grown in treated wastewaters for centuries, and where toxics are not encountered the process has been successful. Many species of fish have been used in wastewater treatment, but fish activity is temperature dependent. Most grow successfully in warm water, but catfish and minnows are exceptions. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are critical and the presence of un-ionized ammonia is toxic to the young of larger species. Detailed studies of fish in wastewater stabilization ponds...

Performance of Constructed Wetlands Treating Swine Waste

Note BOD, biological oxygen demand TSS, total suspended solids TKN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen. Source Hammer, D.A. et al., in Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement, Moshiri, G. et al., Eds., Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 1993, 343-348. With permission. to an equalization pond from which it is transferred to the wetland unit. The pond at the Escambia County landfill in Florida is aerated, because septage is also added to the pond (Martin et al., 1993). Characterization of the...

Design and Performance Data from EPA Pond Studies

Organic Loading (kg BOD ha1 d1) Source Data from Middlebrooks et al. (1982) and USEPA (1983). Months Effluent BOD Exceeded 30 mg L The Gloyna method was evaluated using the data referenced in Table 4.2. The equation giving the best fit of the data is shown below as Equation 4.2 despite the considerable scatter to the data, the relationship is statistically significant V 0.035< 2(BOD)(1 .099)LIGHT (35-t 2S0 (4.2) BOD BOD5 in the system influent (mg L). LIGHT Solar radiation (langleys). V Pond...

R

FIGURE 7.6 Schematic diagram of nitrification filter bed. sand filters normally operate with a hydraulic loading of less than 5 gal ft2-d (0.2 m d). Gravel is used in the NFB to increase the hydraulic conductivity of the media and permit much higher hydraulic loading rates on the system. The hydraulic loading (with a 3 1 recycle ratio) is about 100 gal ft2-d (4 m d) on one of the operational NFB systems at Benton, Kentucky. The design procedure for the NFB is based on nitrification experience...

Performance Data

Mean performance data for 13 BIOLAC systems are shown in Table 4.15, and monthly performance data are available in the USEPA (1990) report. All but the Along the Length of the Clarifier Hopper Bottom FIGURE 4.22 Cross-sectional view of integral BIOLAC-R clarifier. (Courtesy of Parkson Corp., Ft. Lauderdale, FL.) Along the Length of the Clarifier Hopper Bottom FIGURE 4.22 Cross-sectional view of integral BIOLAC-R clarifier. (Courtesy of Parkson Corp., Ft. Lauderdale, FL.) Summary of Average...

Agricultural Runoff

Nonpoint runoff from cultivated fields adds pollution to receiving water in the form of sediments and nutrients, particularly phosphorus. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has developed a process for treatment and management of these runoff waters. A schematic diagram of the system is shown in Figure 6.5 components include an underdrained wet meadow, a marsh, and a pond in series. An optional final component is a vegetated polishing area. The combined concept is referred to as a...

G Land Treatment Systems

Haccp Voorbeeld Visverwerkingsbedrijf

Land treatment systems include slow rate (SR), overland flow (OF), and soil aquifer treatment (SAT) or rapid infiltration (RI). In addition, the on-site soil absorption systems discussed in Chapter 10 utilize soil treatment mechanisms. The process of land treatment is the controlled application of wastewater to soil to achieve treatment of constituents in the wastewater. All three processes use the natural physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms within the soil-plant-water matrix. The SR...

Organism Concentration in Wastewater and Downwind Aerosol

Wastewater Concentration (No. 100 mL) x 106 69.9 7.5 0.8 0.22 0.007 1.1 0.39 0.005 Aerosol Concentration at Edge of Sprinkler Impact Circle (No. m3 of air sampled) 2578 5.6 1.1 0.4 11.3 71.7 < 1.0 1.4 Source Sorber, C.A. and Sagik, B.P., in Wastewater Aerosols and Disease, EPA 600 9-80-078, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, 1980, 23-35. Aerosol particles may be up to 20 im in diameter, which is large enough to transport bacteria or...

Surface disposal of biosolids

Standards (40 CFR Part 503) for the use or disposal of sewage sludge were published in the Federal Register on February 19, 1993 (Bastian, 1993 Crites et al., 2000 USEPA, 1994a). The regulation discusses land application, surface disposal, pathogen and vector attraction reduction, and incineration. Land application is defined as beneficial use of the sludge at agronomic rates, while all other placement on the land is considered to be surface disposal. Heavy-metal concentrations are limited by...