Worlds Best Compost

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

Get My Free Ebook

The Keys to a Great Compost

This informative eBook demonstrates the best ways to compost in order to improve your garden, make your vegetables and fruits taste better, and help save the soil and the environment. Over 20% of landfills are simply kitchen waste that could easily be recycled Why waste what you already produce? You have an easy source of organic health for your own garden at home, without having to spend large amounts of money in order to make really healthy soil. With today's composting technology, you can compost as much as suits your needs! If that is a little compost for a small home garden or a large plot that you grow food for your family or business, composting will be an easy and cheap way to improve the quality of your soil and thus your vegetables as well! This guide shows you every method of composting; from free methods you can do with no extra money all the way to elaborate by easy to set up composting rigs. Improve the environment, and get better tasting food!

The Keys to a Great Compost Overview


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Duane Palmer
Price: $28.00

Download Now

Composting of Hazardous Organic Wastes

Hazardous wastes can be treated in all the systems mentioned above, but long durations are usually needed to reach permitted levels of pollution. The choice of the system depends on the required time and possible cost of the treatment. Time of the treatment decreases, but the costs increase in the following sequence windrow systems-static pile system in-vessel system. To intensify the composting of hazardous solid waste, the following pretreatments can be used mechanical disintegration and separation or screening to improve bioavailability of hazardous substances, thermal treatment, washing out of hazardous substances from waste by water or surfactants to diminish their content in waste, or application of H2O2, ozone, or Fenton's reagent as a chemical pretreatment to oxidize and cleave aromatic rings of hydrocarbons. There are many reports of successful applications of all types of composting for the treatment of crude-oil-impacted soil, petrochemicals-polluted soil, and...

NMR Spectra of Initial Soils and Composts Before Amendments

The 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of compost used for field treatments in the three experimental sites are shown in Fig. 4.1, whereas the relative distribution of signal areas is reported in Table 4.9. Since compost samples had a common origin, a similar C distribution was found in NMR spectra. The spectra of mature composts were dominated by the alkyl-C (0-45 ppm) and O-alkyl-C (60-110 ppm) signals. The alkyl-C region comprised a prominent peak at around 30 ppm, mostly due to methylene carbon chains (CH2)n and terminal methyl groups in plant lipid compounds, such as waxes and aliphatic biopolyesters. Fig. 4.1 C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of the mature compost materials used for soil treatments at Torino, Piacenza, and Napoli Fig. 4.1 C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of the mature compost materials used for soil treatments at Torino, Piacenza, and Napoli Table 4.9 Relative distribution ( ) of signal area over chemical shift regions (ppm) in 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of compost samples used for field treatments Table...

Biochemical Aspects of Composting

The composting mass is at ambient temperature, but a rapid rise occurs as the microorganism multiply. When the temperature moves above 40 C, the mesophilic stage is replaced by the thermophilic stage. The time required to reach the thermophilic stage varies, but it is frequently achieved in 2 or 3 days (Olds 1968). The temperature stabilizes around 70 C, followed by a gradual cooling to ambient temperature. This temperature pattern has been observed by many investigators for typical garden compost as well as for municipal compost (Webley 1947 Kortleven 1951 Eastwood 1952 Chang and Hudson 1967 Kochtitzky et al. 1969). The temperature gradient from the center outward lessens as the pile size increases. Since heat loss is proportional to surface area and heat generation is proportional to volume, the larger pile, having a smaller surface area to volume ratio loses relatively less heat. In large compost piles, the temperature increases steadily 70 C with time, in smaller piles there is...

Microbiological Aspects of Composting

Composting is a biological process mediated by microbes belonging to the kingdom Protest, which includes bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, and virus particles (Table 12.2). Microbes can be classified into metabolic types based on the carbon and energy sources utilized by the cell. Autotrophs use carbon dioxide as a Table 12.2 Microbial populations during aerobic composting (in Poincelot 1977) Table 12.2 Microbial populations during aerobic composting (in Poincelot 1977) No. Wet gram compost Lemunier et al. (2005) resulted that biowaste compost may support long-term survival of Salmonella serovar Enteridits when sanitation has been unsatisfactory during the thermophilic phase or in the case of colonization during storage of mature compost. Mature biowaste compost did not allow L. monocytogenes survival and also for Escherichia coli only a short survival time was observed. However, this study showed that management of the maturation phase is critical for limiting hazards associated with...

Zoological Characteristics of Compost

Compost has the ability to enrich soil with beneficial invertebrates that stimulate the growth of soil organisms. The zoological population influences the physical, chemical, and microbial factors in soil. Some zoological populations in the mixture of sludge, bulking agent, and amendment survive the composting process. They penetrate the compost pile when temperature decreases to 30 to 35 C during the cooling stage. When the compost is stored, the zoological populations increase. The number of species in the cured compost can increase to more than 200. Some scientists are of the opinion that by determining the zoological population in the compost, one can predict how much biological activity occurs in the soil when the compost is applied to the soil.

GHG sources in composting

Composting may result in emissions from various sources, such as biogenic processes during composting, collection and transportation of the raw material and the compost, the application of compost in agriculture. Emissions from the process itself mainly consist of carbon dioxide which is the result of the aerobic decomposition. Depending on the type of raw material, the duration of the composting process, as well as other bioprocess characteristics, different amounts of CO2 are emitted per ton of composted raw material. Because CO2 in this case is biogenic in origin, this emission is not counted in greenhouse gas inventories. Nevertheless capturing of emitted CO2 and its use instead of carbon dioxide from fossil sources will improve the anthropogenic greenhouse gas balance (see chapter 12.3.4). In a well-managed composting process, CO2 is the only process gas. If aeration in the compost heap is poor, or the material is too wet, an anaerobic situation may occur, which is accompanied by...

Comparison Of Thermal Drying And Composting

In recent years, thermal drying and composting have become useful technologies for the preparation of class A biosolids. Let us examine three sludge-processing schemes, shown in Figure 9.4, to compare the heat consumption of these two technologies. Let the quantity of raw primary and thickened activated sludge be 800 m3 d with 4 dry solids. Scheme 2 The quantity of organics reduced during composting process averages about 25 , but for digested sludge, with the reduced quantity of organics, it can be just 10 . For primary sludge, the reduction is more than 45 , and for activated sludge it is about 30 to 35 . Let us assume that the reduction of organics during composting of the mixture of raw primary and activated sludge is 35 . Then the quantity of reduced heat released from composting (7840kg d)(21 MJ kg) Scheme 3 The quantity of organics reduced during composting of digested sludge is 10 , which is (28 kg m3)(40 )(10 ) 1.1 kg m3, where 40 is the organics reduced in digestion....

Generalized Composting Process

Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. The decomposition is performed primarily by facultative and obligate aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, and also helped in the cooler initial and ending phases by a number of larger organisms, such as ants, nematodes, and oligochaete worms. Composting recycles organic household and yard waste and manures into a useful humus-like, soil end-product called compost. Ultimately, this permits the return of needed organic matter and nutrients into the foodchain. Composting can significantly reduce the amount of biowaste going into burgeoning landfills. The decomposition process is a result of raised temperatures. The elevated heat results from exothermic processes, and the heat in turn reduces the generational time of microorganisms and thereby speeds the energy and nutrient exchanges taking place. Although it would be very difficult to find a universally accepted definition of composting, Haug...

Maturity of Composting Products

The Composting Council of Canada (http pdf sheet_4.PDF) defines the compost maturity as following (the guidelines for that are shown in Table 12.3) Compost maturity was chosen as one of the parameters for determining the grade of compost in Canada because it is so important to product performance. Immature compost may stunt, damage, or even kill plants, rather than enhancing their growth. Maturity is not related to quality, but to what stage in the composting process the material has progressed. Mature compost is material in which biological activity has been slowed. All of the easily degraded molecules have been broken down, leaving the complex organic material behind. It is difficult to identify the original feedstock materials. A fine texture, dark color, and a rich earthy smell often characterize mature composts. As organic material composts, large complex molecules are broken down in a series of steps. The final products are simple, stable molecules, which make up the...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Composting

The main advantages of sludge composting are the following Compost has an abundance of nutrients and is suitable for a wide variety of end uses, such as landscaping, topsoil blending, and growth media. Compost has less nitrogen than biosolids from other stabilization processes, due to the loss of ammonia during composting. However, nitrogen in compost is released more slowly and is available to plants over a long period of time, which is more consistent with plant uptake needs. Well-composted sludge can meet the requirements for class A biosolids and can be sold to distributors and the public. Compost increases the water content and retention of sandy soils. Compost increases aeration and water infiltration of clay soils. The main disadvantages of composting are the following Windrow and aerated static pile composting require relatively large areas, and odor control is a common problem. Ambient temperatures and weather conditions influence windrow and aerated static pile composting.

Theoretical Aspects Of Composting

The Composting Process

For the best results in a composting process, it is important to have appropriate mixing of sludge cake with bulking agents and recycled materials. For the process to operate in good condition, it needs to have the optimum mass balance, moisture, temperature, pH, nutrients, and air. Figure 7.11 shows a mass balance diagram that can be used for all three composting systems windrow, aerated static pile, and in-vessel. In the diagram A' weight of ready compost in one day A weight of recycled compost in one day B weight of dewatered sludge in one day D weight of a mixture of dewatered sludge, bulking agent, recycled bulking agent, and recycled compost in one day C 1 , C2 , C3 , C4 concentration ( ) of dry solids in dewatered sludge, recycled compost, composting mixture, and bulking agents, respectively Or1, Or2, Or3, Or4 concentration ( ) of organics in dewatered sludge, recycled compost, composting mixuture, and bulking agents, respectively The quantity of mixture being composted is...

Process Description 721 Factors Influencing Composting

Composting represents the combined activity of a succession of mixed populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi at different stages of the process. The principal factors that affect the biology of composting are moisture, temperature, pH, nutrient concentration, and oxygen supply. Moisture Decomposition of organic matter depends on moisture. Less than 40 moisture may limit the rate of decomposition. The optimum moisture content is 50 to 60 . Moisture content is also important for the structural integrity and sufficient porosity of the composting pile. If the initial compost mixture has more than 60 moisture, proper structural integrity will not be achieved and the mixture will not decompose well. Dewatered municipal sludges are usually 18 to 35 solids (65 to 82 moisture), depending on the type of dewatering equipment used. Such sludge cakes are too wet for composting. Mixing the cake with a dry bulking material can reduce the moisture content of the sludge cake. Table 7.1 lists...

Composting process characters

Composting is a technology for the treatment of organic residues using aerobic bioprocesses. Organic material, which consists of sugar, starch, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, and a lignin like fraction, is fully or partly decomposed by different kinds of micro-organisms which act in a complicated metabolic pathway. The result of the composting process is compost. It mainly consists of those organic waste components which are not or only partly used by the microbial metabolism, as well as of components which are formed in the longer term during the so-called maturation processes. The compost is used as fertilizer in agriculture. Benefits arise from the nutrient content of the compost, like salts of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrate. But it is even more important that the organic matter in the compost, such as humus like substances, improve the concentration of organic matter in the soil and its structure, and preserve soil fertility over a long period. Sources of compost are wastes from...

Examples Of Composting In The United States

In the United States, studies of windrow and aerated static pile composting were conducted in the mid-1970s in Beltsville, Maryland, and in Carson, California. As of 2003, there were more than 200 wastewater sludge composting facilities in the United States. Most of the composting facilities are aerated static pile systems, and some are in-vessel systems. Windrow composting is rarely used because of the potential odor generation and the large area requirement. The city of Eustis, Florida, uses the windrow process for composting aerobically digested sludge. The dewatered sludge cake of 12 to 14 solids mixed with wood chips at the ratio of 1 2 by volume is formed into windrow piles by a front-end loader on paved surface. The pile is mixed using a windrow machine every day for three to five days until the temperature reaches 55 C. The temperature is maintained between 55 and 65 C for 15 days, during which time the pile is turned about five times. The composting process takes about three...

Carbon sequestration by compost application

Compost is applied in agriculture to improve soil fertility by means of the supply of mineral fertilizers, such as potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Moreover, the input of compost strongly influences the soil carbon storage which is also an important factor of soil fertility. This is due to the fact that composting partly results in the increased formation of stable carbon compounds, i.e. humus-like substances and aggregates. These are made of complex compounds that render them resistant to microbial attack. The input of organic matter is especially important in such a case where an intensive cultivation of soil results in its degradation, since decomposition rates and removal of carbon by the crops are not well balanced by inputs. By adding compost an input of new organic matter takes place, so that the soil carbon level is restored. In this case compost nitrogen stimulates soil productivity which results in the higher volume of crop residues. Other compost components may have a...

Composting Process Control

Experiments show that the type and population of microorganisms varies during the composting process. It is therefore critical to control the composting environment so that the microorganisms can flourish. The composting environment parameters include the compost pile temperature, moisture content of the compost, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the compost pile, and the availability of nutrients, including carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium for the microorganisms. These parameters must be monitored, as they affect the vitality of the microorganisms. The temperature in the compost pile affects most directly the types of microorganisms and their functions. The type of microorganism changes as the compost pile temperature increases from its initial temperature to the mesophilic (25 to 40 C) phase, to the thermophilic (55 to 65 C) phase, and to the slow decrease in temperature following completion of the composting process. Experiments show that the thermophilic phase must be...

Examples Of Composting In Europe

Several examples of different types of composting systems that have been in use in Europe are described below. All these systems are open-air processes, mostly on asphalt pavements. In Finland, two wastewater treatment plants (city of Lappeenranta and city of Loensiy) compost sludge mixed with ground bark as the bulking agent at a ratio of 1 1 by volume in 3-m-high windrow piles. Every three weeks, piles are shoveled over by scoop loader. After two weeks of processing the temperature rises to 50 C, and after three to four weeks it rises to 60 C. Duration of composting during summer is four to six months. Cured compost has a moisture content of 40 to 60 (Paatero and Lehtokori, 1984). The wastewater treatment plant in Blua, France, has composted digested dewatered sludge with sawdust at the ratio of 1 3 by volume. Windrow piles 1.5 to 2 m high and 4 to 5 m wide were formed and turned frequently by special machines two to five times a week during the first three weeks. The machines...

Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are three main types of composting technology the windrow system, the static pile system, and the in-vessel system.

Use of composting CO2 as greenhouse fertilizer

If compost born CO2 could be applied in production processes instead of fossil derived carbon dioxide, a net reduction of the GHG balance would be possible. As was mentioned a total of about 150 kg CO2 is emitted per ton of compost raw material. Thus in a facility with a capacity of 100,000 t annually, about 15,000 t of carbon dioxide are produced. In Germany CO2 from composting totals about one Mio t of carbon dioxide, which could be used instead of fossil derived CO2 in industrial or related processes. A sensible use of compost born carbon dioxide is its application in greenhouses where crops are fertilized by CO2 which improves the yields by about 30-40 percent through a CO2 input of 100 t per hectare annually. Conventionally CO2 is from gas burners or is industrially produced. If compost CO2 was used by a medium sized composting facility, an area of about 150 hectares could be fully supplied. As another advantage the residues from the greenhouse crop can be applied as raw material...

Composting Products and Maturity 1241 Agronomic Value of Composting Products

Compost contains high portions of the humus-C, the portion of carbon that contributes to the humus reproduction. It accounts for 51 of the total organic carbon and is therewith higher than in any other humus fertilizer. Compared with compost, straw and liquid manure contain 21 carbon and green-fertilizers contain only 14 . The effectiveness on the humus reproduction with compost is by factor 4 higher than with straw and by factor 20 higher than with liquid manure (Kehres 2008). This fact is very relevant from the view of sustainable agriculture, because agriculture cultivation is connected with losses of humus-C in the soils and the fertilization with compost could compensate it. Organic material and their decomposition products can reduce P fixation in soils by the complexation of Al and Fe by organic acids, by the competition between organic acids and orthophosphate for adsorption sites and release of P by organic material during decomposition (Mnkeni and MacKenzie 1985 Sibanda and...


Composting can be defined as the biological degradation of organic materials under aerobic conditions into relatively stable products, brought about by the action of a variety of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and protozoa. The process of composting may be divided into two main stages stabilization and maturation. During stabilization, three phases may be distinguished first a phase of rising temperature, secondly the thermophilic phase where high temperature is maintained, and thirdly the mesophilic phase where the temperature gradually decreases to ambient. During the first phase, a vigorous multiplication of mesophilic bacteria is observed, and a transformation of easily oxidized carbon compounds, rich in energy, to compounds of lower molecular structure takes place. Excess energy results in a rapid rise in temperature and leads to the thermophilic phase when less easily degraded organic compounds are attacked. When the energy source is depleted the temperature decreases...

Composting Materials

The major categories of substrates potentially suitable for composting are the following Yard wastes Many different materials are suitable for composting organisms. The most important parameter for composting is the C N ratio (Table 12.1). Some materials contain high amounts of carbon in the form of cellulose, which is required by the bacteria for their energy and other materials contain nitrogen in the form of protein, which provide nutrients energy exchanges. Suitable ingredients with relatively high carbon content include Table 12.1 C N ratio of some raw compost materials (in Periurban Vegetable Project http composting.htm) Table 12.1 C N ratio of some raw compost materials (in Periurban Vegetable Project http composting.htm) Kitchen waste The most efficient composting occurs by seeking to obtain an initial C N mix of 25 30 by dry chemical weight (Haug 1993). Grass clippings have an average ratio of 10-19 to 1 and dry autumn leaves from 55-100 to 1....

Composting Methods

There are three classifications of sludge composting end product that is uniform. In the aerated static pile process, air is blown through the materials using a blower. In-vessel composting systems are proprietary systems in which composting is performed in a reactor with air forced through the reactor, but with or without periodic agitation. In-vessel systems are enclosed processes. Windrow and aerated static pile processes are not enclosed, but a roof may be provided to protect the compost from precipitation. The fundamental process of each composting method is similar (see Figure 7.2). The basic steps are as follows A bulking agent is added to the dewatered sludge for porosity and moisture control. Amendments, if needed, are also added in this step to supplement limiting nutrients such as carbon. The bulking agents and amendments can be a wide variety of materials, such as wood chips, ground bark, yard waste, sawdust, wood ash, peat, agricultural residues such as rice hulls, and...

Composting Mixture

The new technology requires quicklime to be mixed with the dewatered sludge just prior to adding a bulking agent (sawdust, wood chips, bark, etc.) and recycled compost. Refer to Figure 7.13 for the schematic of the proposed 3.Hopper for bulking agents and recycled compost 6.Discharge conveyor for mixture to be composted 8.Composting piles 11. Cover over composting piles 3.Hopper for bulking agents and recycled compost 6.Discharge conveyor for mixture to be composted 8.Composting piles 11. Cover over composting piles Figure 7.13 Schematic of raw sludge composting. composting process. Once the quicklime and the dewatered sludge are thoroughly mixed, the bulking agent and a portion of recycled compost are added and mixed. This mixture is then formed into piles and allowed to compost until a temperature of 55 to 65 C has been maintained for 3 to 11 days. The piles are often covered with a layer of bulking agent or recycled compost to protect the pile from heat loss as well as to avoid...

Composting Process

Composting of wastewater sludge is an aerobic biothermal process that decomposes the organic constituents. It can be described by the formula Microbiology Composting represents the combined activity of a succession of mixed populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. Although the interrelationship of these microbial populations is not fully understood, it is known that bacteria are responsible for the decomposition of a major portion of the organic matter. Figure 7.1 Phases during composting. Figure 7.1 Phases during composting. Composting occurs in three successive phases the mesophilic, thermophilic, and curing phases. In the initial mesophilic phase, the temperature of the composting pile increases from ambient to 40 C (104 F). In the thermophilic phase, the temperature increases from 40 C to 70 C (104 F to 160 F). In the final curing phase (also known as the cooling phase), the microbial activity is reduced, and the composting process is completed. Figure 7.1 shows the...

Foreword to the First Edition

Olive-milling like every human activity and industrial process results in a low-entropy desired product and a high-entropy unwanted by-product or waste termed olive-mill waste. The production of olive oil, viewed in a holistic perspective, begins with the picking of olives and ends after their processing in olive-mills. Olive-mill technology at present generates a variety of waste in both energy and mass forms. In addition to solid waste generated in the olive groves by annual pruning of olive trees, a considerable amount of solid waste is generated during milling in the form of leaves and small twigs brought to the mill with the olives and in the form of crushed olive stones and sizable remnants of olive pulp (flesh) following olive oil extraction. Leaves and twigs can be used as animal feed (mainly for goats) or in the production of compost after mixing with other appropriate materials. Liquid waste is known as olive-mill wastewater (OMWW), since during olive milling and olive oil...

Anaerobic Digestion173

7 Composting 235 7.1.1 Composting Process, 236 7.1.2 Composting Methods, 237 7.1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Composting, 239 7.1.4 Zoological Characteristics of Compost, 239 7.2.1 Factors Influencing Composting, 240 7.3 Theoretical Aspects of Composting, 252 7.4 New Technology in Composting, 259 7.4.4 Composting Mixture, 262 7.4.5 Composting Process Control, 263 7.5 Examples of Composting in Europe, 267 7.6 Examples of Composting in the United States, 272 9.4 Composting, 309 9.5 Comparison of Thermal Drying and Composting, 310

The Nature of Soil Organic Matter and Innovative Soil Managements to Fight Global Changes and Maintain Agricultural

Abstract A new era in soil management is emerging on the basis of the novel understanding of soil organic matter (SOM), as a noncovalent supramolecular association of small molecules surviving microbial degradation of plant and animal tissues. The recognition of such molecular nature of humus may have technological implications in agricultural soil management that are yet to be developed. Here we discuss the implications of the supramolecular structure of humus on innovative methods for carbon sequestration in agricultural soil. One method exploits the capacity of humified hydrophobic matter, such as mature compost amended to soils, to protect from mineralization biolabile hydrophilic molecules rhizodeposited by crops. Another method is the use of biomimetic catalysts to be spread on soils to oxidatively photopolymerize SOM in situ. The formation of intermolecular cova-lent bonds among soil humic molecules increases the chemical energy required by microbes to mineralize SOM. Both...

Sludge Management Concepts

The freezing, composting, and reed bed concepts listed in Table 1.4 are intended to prepare the sludge for final disposal or reuse. The freeze thaw approach described in Chapter 9 can easily increase sludge solids content to 35 or higher almost immediately upon thawing. Composting provides for further stabilization of the sludge and a significant reduction in pathogen content as well as a reduction in moisture content. The major benefits of the reed bed approach are the possibility for multiple-year sludge applications and drying before removal is required. Solids concentrations acceptable for landfill disposal can be obtained readily. Land application of sludge is designed to utilize the nutrient content in the sludge in agricultural, forest, and reclamation projects. Typically, the unit sludge loading is designed on the basis of the nutrient requirements for the vegetation of concern. The metal content of the sludge may then limit both the unit loading and the design application...

The Mechanism of Hydrophobic Protection of SOM to Sequester Carbon in Soil

Furthermore, the porous architecture of hydrophobic domains of soil humus exerts a dynamic mechanism of hydrophobic protection toward the biolabile organic compounds released in soil solution by plant roots exudates and microbial degradation of crop biomolecules. It was experimentally verified by measuring the reduced degradation of 13C-labeled compounds in soils amended with humified matter at different degree of hydrophobicity (Spaccini et al. 2002). These authors synthesized a 13C-labeled 2-decanol as a model of an easily degradable molecule in soil. They partitioned the labeled molecule into solutions of two humic acids, one from compost (HA-C) and one from lignite (HA-L), of different degrees of hydrophobicity. The two labeled humic solutions and one solution containing only the labeled 2-decanol (soil + 13C) were added to a soil and incubated at field capacity for 3 months. The treated samples and a control soil were sampled periodically and the 13C content was measured by...

Increasing Microbial Stability of SOM by In Situ Catalyzed Polymerization of Humic Components

While soil treatment with mature compost is increasingly recognized as a valuable practice for SOM stabilization, the use of biomimetic catalyst represents an absolutely innovative technology to increase the SOC sequestration process. Humic molecules in solution were found to oxidatively polymerize and provide more rigid products under the catalysis of a water-soluble iron-porphyrin (Piccolo et al. 2005b). This polymerization reaction was shown to also occur under photo-oxidation without the need of a chemical oxidant (Smejkalova and Piccolo 2005). The oligomers formed during the biomimetic catalyzed reaction were isolated and characterized by Smejkalova et al. (2006, 2007). It was found that up to pentamers were formed during the oligomerization of phenolic precursors. Both mechanisms of hydrophobic protection by humified matter such as compost and in situ catalyzed photo-polymerization of SOM received a solid scientific basis that pointed out how they were both effective in favoring...

Good housekeeping recommendations for specific industries to reduce waste

The principal processing steps include (i) general cleaning and dirt removal (ii) removal of leaves, skin, and seeds (iii) blanching (iv) washing and cooling (v) packaging and (vi) clean-up (US-AEP 1997). Waste includes peelings, stems, seeds, shells, etc. and products that are off-spec, damaged, out-of-date, or returned. Reduce waste by using air flotation units to remove debris from raw fruits and vegetables. In addition, try to wash, grade, and trim crops in the field so that the waste can biodegrade in nature rather than becoming a solid waste problem in buildings. This type of waste can be reused as animal feed or converted to compost, mulch, or soil conditioners. This waste is caused by overproduction, product deterioration, damaged goods, spills, or operator errors. Improving process control will have the greatest impact on reducing this waste stream, since most of the waste is due to cutting errors, incorrect weight, misforming, and contamination. Waste can also be decreased...

Chapter review questions

4.8 Determine the per capita characteristics of BOD and suspended solids (SS) if garbage grinders are installed in a community. Assume that the average per capita flow is 110 gpd and that the typical average per capita contributions for domestic wastewater with ground kitchen waste are BOD 0.21 lb capita day SS is 0.28 lb capita day.

Harnessing The Drilosphere To Restore Ecosystem Functions In Degraded Soils

2 This process should not, however, be confounded with vermicomposting, which is the transformation of raw organic matter into a high-value compost by the Lumb-ricidae earthworm Eisenia fetida. This process is done outside the soil, and these worms are epigeics that cannot dig the soil.

Thou Shalt Consider the Life Cycle

There's a significant energy supply and a significant energy demand reduction opportunity available to the nation. Supply and demand are not opposites they are complements. Both must be pursued. Experience is proving that the use of waste as fuel and as a raw material are complementary. Introducing both into the solid waste management system improves each. Removing grass and other wet yard waste for composting and cans and bottles for recycling actually improves combustion. Where there are recycling and energy markets for paper and plastic, the recovery for both uses is enhanced. The construction of oversized energy plants seen in the late 1970s has not been repeated, and the conflict between energy and recycling does not exist.

Soil Carbon Sequestration Options

For forests, carbon sequestration options include the increase of soil carbon stocks through afforestation, reforestation, improved forest management or revegetation. For croplands, options include zero or reduced tillage, set-aside or Conservation Reserve Program, conversion to permanent or deep-rooting crops, improved efficiency of animal manure use, improved efficiency of crop residue use, agricultural use of sewage sludge, application of compost to land, rotational changes, fertilizer use, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification or de-intensification of farming, organic farming (a combination of many different individual practices), conversion of cropland to grassland and management to reduce wind and water erosion. For grazing lands, soil carbon sequestration measures include improved efficiency of animal manure use, improved efficiency of crop residue use, improved livestock management to reduce soil disturbance, improved livestock management to maximize manure carbon...

Aerosol Bacteria and Viruses at Pleasanton California Land Treatment System Using Undisinfected Effluent

Composting is a very effective process for inactivating most microorganisms, including viruses, due to the high temperatures generated during the treatment (see Chapter 9 for details) however, the heat produced in the process also stimulates the growth of thermophilic fungi and actinomycetes, and concerns have been expressed regarding their aerosol transport. The aerosols in this case are dust particles released when the compost materials are aerated, mixed, screened, or otherwise moved about the site. A study was conducted at four composting operations involving 400 on-site and off-site workers (Clark et al., 1984b). The most significant finding was a higher concentration of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus in the throat and nasal cultures of the actively involved on-site workers, but this finding was not correlated with an increased incidence of infection or disease. The fungus was rarely detected in on-site workers involved only occasionally or in the off-site control group. The...

Effects of Organic Matter Amendments

Animal manures and compost can be valuable nutrients sources to crops. In addition, while their amendments to soils represent a convenient disposal and recycle of considerable amounts of wastes, they allow to limit the application of mineral fertilizers and, thus, save farm money and energy. A number of studies have shown that manure addition is beneficial to soil in terms of plant productivity and soil quality (Haynes and Naidu 1998 Edmeades 2003). Field experiments made in southern Italy in the same site as that of Mescosagr (Fagnano et al. 2011) showed a favorable effect on lettuce yield of compost made with municipal solid wastes (MSW), proving that compost fertilization may have agronomic and environmental benefits in sandy-loam soils, if amendment rates are tuned to N requirements of crops. The compost rate of 30 Mg ha-1 satisfied the N requirements of two lettuce cycles, without causing surplus of nitrogen in posthar-vest periods and dangerous levels of nitrate and potentially...

Renewable Energy Technologies

Biogas is produced through biogas plants. These plants operate using waste from paper and sugar production, sewage, animal waste, and other biodegradable wastes. These wastes are slurried together and allowed to ferment with bacteria to produce methane gas. This methane gas is a renewable natural gas used for cooking, heating, and electricity production. In Asia, many developing countries such as India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bhutan, have individual household biogas plants to meet household energy demands. There is immense viability to having commercial biogas plants. Current sewage treatment plants can easily be converted to biogas plants. Once the methane gas is extracted from waste, the remaining sludge can be used as a fertilizer. It is five times higher in nitrogen than compost produced from the same biomass.

Soils Characteristics and Experimental Setup

The effect of mature compost addition on soil carbon sequestration was evaluated by comparing the following field management during a 3-year experiment (2006-2008), using a monocolture of mais (Zea mais) as annual crop (see Chap. 3) - Compost first rate (COM-1) same as the TRA plots but with the addition of an amount of mature compost corresponding to 2.7 ton ha-1 of OC. - Compost second rate (COM-2) same as the TRA plots but with addition of an amount of mature compost corresponding to 5.4 ton ha-1 of OC.

Impact of rice cultivation systems

The available database indicates that the CH4 emission per unit area and season follows the order continuously flooded irrigated rice > intermittently flooded irrigated rice > deepwater rice > regular (flood-prone) rainfed rice > drought-prone rainfed rice (Table 8.1). Upland rice is not a source of CH4, since it is grown in aerated soils that never become flooded for any significant period of time. However, this ranking only provides an initial assessment of the emission potentials that can locally be superseded by crop management favouring or lowering actual emission rates (Wassmann et al, 2000a, 2000b). The flooding pattern before the cultivation period significantly influences the emission rates (Fitzgerald et al, 2000 Cai et al, 2003). Differences in residue recycling, organic amendments, scheduled short aeration periods, soils, fertilization and rice cultivars are major additional causes for variations of CH4 fluxes in rice fields. Various organic amendments incorporated...

Torino Experimental Site

After the first year, the majority of treatments on maize plots of Torino showed a significant increase of aggregate stability with respect to the initial soil (Table 4.3). Only the addition of green manure (GMAN) and the lower rate of compost (COM-1) produced smaller MWD increases. All field treatments revealed a positive effect in the distribution of water-stable aggregates, with an overall decrease in the yield of microaggregates (< 0.25 mm), which were steadily incorporated in upper size-classes. The widespread increase of soil aggregation may be explained with the physical action of plant roots and fungal hyphae, as well as root debris and microbial bio-products, which promote association of small soil fractions into meso- and macroaggregates (Tisdall and Oades 1982 Chan and Heenan 1999 Six et al. 2004). For the GMAN and COM-1 treatments, the effect was limited to the intermediate particles size fraction (1-0.25 mm), while for traditional (TRA), minimum tillage (MIN), and...

Piacenza Experimental Site

The positive effect on aggregate stability for the maize field plots under compost was also confirmed at the end of the third experimental year (Table 4.4). With respect to the results of the previous years, the aggregate distribution of TRA, MIN, CAT, and No-CAT indicated an occurred recovery of the original structural stability. The values of aggregate yields and stability index for these treatments reached those found at the onset of experiments, thereby suggesting a progressive lower efficacy of both MIN and CAT on soil structural quality. Conversely, COM-2 plots showed a continuous decrease of both microaggregates ( 2.8 ) and intermediate macroaggregate fractions, which became firmly incorporated into larger sized aggregates (+13.4 ), thus improving the overall soil structural stability index (1.92).

Napoli Experimental Site

Differently from previous experimental sites, the first year of cultivation produced a deterioration of soil structural properties in the field plots of Napoli (Table 4.5). With respect to the initial control soil, nearly all treatments showed lower yields of large size aggregates, with consequent decrease in soil stability index. The loss of structural stability in maize cultivated plots may be due to specific properties of the sandy-clay loam soil of this site. An exception was the soil treated with the low compost rate (COM-1). This showed a MWD increase, due to an effective association of soil particles into larger aggregate fractions, which included more than 50 of total fraction mass. The addition of the low compost rate (COM-1) may have promoted a microbially induced priming effect with a temporary improvement of macroaggregate formation (Chan and Heenan 1999).

Design Features Of A Green Home

Rainwater from the roof is harvested and gray-water reuse systems are installed in a green home. High efficiency fixtures (toilets, showers, and faucets) are used. In some cases, even composting toilets or living machines treat human wastes. Durable materials used in the construction are sourced locally to avoid unnecessary transportation. All wood is Forest Stewardship Council certified, and products are chosen from an environmentally preferable product list, which favors recycled and recyclable materials and rapidly renewable materials. Waste during construction is minimized, and waste is recycled during construction and during use (for example, through curb-side recycling and back-yard composting).

Legislative And Regulatory History

With limited open land area, sludge disposal has always been a major problem for the New York-New Jersey region. In 1924, New York City began routine ocean disposal of sewage sludge at a dump site 12 miles south of Rockaway Inlet off Long Island. Over the following five decades, New Jersey and Westchester County also used ocean dumping to dispose of sewage sludge. By 1979, 5.4 million metric tons (mt) of sewage sludge solids (5 percent) had been dumped into the shallow (30-meter) site (Mueller et al., 1982). Because of the ecological effects, and the resulting political and public controversy (NACOA, 1981), ocean dumping at the 12-mile site was abandoned in 1985. Sludge disposal was then moved to a deepwater site 106 miles offshore until this practice was ended in 1992. New York City has subsequently constructed eight sludge dewatering facilities. Various private contractors then further process approximately 1,200 tons per day of dewatered sludge, known as biosolids for beneficial...

Application of Biotechnology for Industrial Waste Treatment

Bioagents for hazardous waste treatment are biotechnological agents that can be applied to hazardous waste treatment including bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa. Bacteria are microorganisms with prokaryotic cells and typically range from 1 to 5 pm in size. Bacteria are most active in the biodegradation of organic matter and are used in the wastewater treatment and solid waste or soil bioremediation. Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms that assimilate organic substances and typically range from 5 to 20 pm in size. Fungi are important degraders of biopolymers and are used in solid waste treatment, especially in composting, or in soil bioremediation for the biodegradation of hazardous organic substances. Fungal biomass is also used as an adsorbent of heavy metals or radionuclides. Algae are saprophytic eukaryotic microorganisms that assimilate light energy. Algal cells typically range from 5 to 20 pm in size. Algae are used in environmental biotechnology for the removal of organic...

The Humified SOM Fraction and Its Characterization by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra of the compost materials as well as of HS extracted from soils were acquired on a Bruker AV-300, equipped with a 4 mm wide-bore MAS probe. Spectra were obtained with the following parameters 13,000 Hz of rotor spin rate 1 s of recycle time 1 ms of contact time 20 ms of acquisition time 4,000 scans. Samples were packed in 4 mm zirconia rotors with Kel-F caps. The pulse sequence was applied with a 1H ramp to account for non-homogeneity of the Hartmann-Hahn condition at high spin rotor rates. For the interpretation of 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra, the overall chemical shift range was divided into the following main resonance regions (Spaccini et al. 2009) alkyl-C (0-45 ppm) methoxyl-C and N-alkyl-C (45-60 ppm) O-alkyl-C (60-110 ppm) unsubstituted and alkyl-substituted aromatic-C (110-145 ppm) oxygen substituted aromatic-C (145-160 ppm) carboxyl- and carbonyl-C (160-200 ppm). The area of each spectral region (R abs) was divided by the sum of all spectral areas, in order to...

Concluding Notes on Soil Organic Carbon

The field experiments of the MESCOSAGR project have provided sound indications that the innovative soil treatments, such as amendment with mature hydrophobic compost and in situ SOC photo-polymerization through biomimetic catalysis, sequestered carbon and stabilized SOM more than conventional soil management practices. In fact, the variability in SOC content throughout the experimentation period shown by both MIN and GMAN suggests that these treatments were not able to persistently stabilize OC in both bulk samples and soil particle sizes more than TRA. Moreover, NMR evaluation of soil HS extracted from MIN and GMAN excluded any significant and persistent variation in SOM chemical quality with respect to TRA. Conversely, results obtained for COM-1, COM-2, and CAT plots for all experimental sites during the whole experimentation, suggest an overall positive effect of soil treatments with both humified compost and biomimetic catalyst on SOC accumulation and stabilization....

Better integration of animal manure or human nitrogen and phosphorus in the agricultural system

Better integration of animal manure in crop production systems, and recycling of N in human excreta and compost are further ways to reduce N fertilizer use. In practice only a fraction of this potential reduction in N fertilizer use is realized, in part because of the segregation of crop and livestock production systems and the lack of economic incentives for recycling. The concept of ecological sanitation aiming at closure of local material flow cycles (Langergraber and Muelleggera, 2005) could be a way to recycle human excreta, but is only applied in a few countries. Janssen and Oenema (2008)

Liquid Waste Treatment Methods

The following key treatment methods are mainly applied to liquid waste. Some of these methods can also be used in the treatment of liquid-solid waste (alpeorujo), for example, treatment by fungi, evaporation drying, composting, and livestock feeding. However, those methods tested at laboratory scale must be critically examined before applying them at industrial or full-scale, in order to meet the local environmental and economical conditions.

Existing and evolving tools and models for landfill methane generation oxidation and emissions

In general, although the regulatory first-order kinetic models and the current Tier I Tier II IPCC methodologies function as standardized tools, they cannot, without modification, be expected to replicate CH4 generation or recovery at specific field sites. Historically, first-order kinetic models have continued to be applied for initial estimates for commercial landfill gas recovery projects, then fine-tuned with respect to actual gas recovery when data are available from full-scale systems. Within Kyoto compliance mechanisms, the Tier I FOD models are widely applied for 'baseline' estimates within the approved consolidated landfill gas methodology (ACM0001) for the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This 'flexible mechanism' permits entities in developed countries with Kyoto obligations to financially support greenhouse gas reduction projects in developing countries. However, it is important to emphasize that for landfill gas CDM projects,...

Changes During Conversion

The transition from conventional to organic and low-input farming is accompanied by changes in an array of soil chemical properties and processes that affect soil fertility. Fundamental differences, both qualities and quantitative, in the flow and processing of nutrient result from the use of cover crops, manure and compost applications, and reduction or elimination of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. These changes affect nutrient availability to crops either directly by contributing to nutrient pools or indirectly by influencing the soil chemical and physical environment.

Conclusions trends and broader perspectives

In addition to the direct reduction of landfill CH4 emissions via engineered gas recovery systems, the retardation of emissions by engineered cover systems, and the optimization of in situ rates of methanotrophic CH4 oxidation, one must also be aware of complementary waste management practices to reduce emissions. These include (1) alternative waste management practices such as composting or incineration that reduce landfill CH4 generation and (2) recycling, reuse and waste minimization practices that reduce waste generation. In the context of integrated waste management, it is important to preserve choices for local officials to make informed decisions regarding local waste management practices. Those decisions can benefit from consideration of multiple technical and non-technical issues, including waste quantities and characteristics, local costs and financing issues, regulatory constraints, and infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport...

Biotechnological Processes

Biotechnological processes mainly include aerobic (composting), anaerobic (mixed fermentation), solid fermentation, and fungal treatments. A detailed description of methodologies, results, and case studies related to these processes was discussed in Section 17.5. The composting method for solid waste treatment is preferable to other methods. This

Coproduct recovery and development

The spectrum of potential co-products (or by-products) is enormous, ranging from the very high end (fish oil capsules) to the very low (compost), and encompassing mince, gelatin, roe and other specialty organs, leather, liquid fertilizer, flavorants, and fish meal. Shellfish wastes lend themselves to some of the same products - namely flavorants, liquid fertilizer, meal, and compost - while shrimp, lobster, and crab shells contain chitin, which

Sources of further information and advice

Compost Proceedings of the 1991 Fisheries By-Products Composting Conference (Nelson, K., Ed.), Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute. mathur, s. p., daigle, j.-y., l vesque, m. and dinel, h. (1986), The feasibility of preparing high quality composts from fish scrap and peat with seaweeds or crab scrap. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 4, 27-38. brinton, w. f. and seekins, m. d. (1988), Composting Fish By-Products A Feasibility Study, Woods End Research Laboratory, Mt. Vernon, Maine. Staff of BioCycle (Eds.) (1991), The Art and Science of Composting, J. G. Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania. For those serious about starting a composting operation, a subscription to Biocycle Magazine (Emmaus, Pennsylvania) is a worthwhile investment.

Box 102 The green citizen

The home is designed to encourage people to minimise indirect energy use. A rainwater collector on the roof provides water for the toilet, while all biodegradable household waste is composted and the rest recycled. Most daily transport routines such as getting to work and to local amenities are by bicycle or public transport. Some of the neighbours in the street might have decided that a good way to reduce their street's carbon emissions would be to organise a car-sharing scheme, reducing the number of single-occupancy car journeys. Others, wishing to avoid flying, might have organised a timeshare arrangement for holidays within the UK. A daily nearby market sells food and other necessities produced from low carbon sources, and local residents are encouraged to get involved in the maintenance of the shared gardens.

Biowaste in the European Union

The importance of the composting as biowaste recycling for the sustainable development in Europe can be summarized in the following two points Increasing of soil organic matter through the use of compost Compost as fertilizer in the agricultural production One, from the view of the sustainability, very important consequence of the decline of soil organic matter is the release of greenhouse gases. This problem is also documented in the Impact Assessment of the Thematic Strategy on Soil Protection by the Commission of the European Communities (2006). The Kyoto Protocol committed to limit the greenhouse gas emissions in 1997 the 15 Member States of the European Community have a combine reduction target of 8 CO2-equivalent emissions during the period 2008-2012 compared to 1990. Soil has a very important role in this process, as a source and a sink of carbon. Soil organic matter can be maintained or increased through the promotion of organic input on arable lands (crop residues, cover...

AFM Microbial Biomass and Activity

The results of microbial counts were confirmed by evaluating active fungal biomass (AFM), microbial carbon (Cmic), and soil respiration. The soils of Torino and Napoli showed statistically significant differences for microbial and fungal biomass and CEM in 2008 and for all investigated parameters in 2007 (Table 6.1). In the third year (2008) of experimentation (Table 6.1), active fungal biomass (AFM) and microbial carbon (Cmic) were significantly affected by compost amendment (COM-2). Moreover, when considering the variability within groups, a significant effect was observed for soil (bulk rhizo) and site (Napoli Torino), as well as for Table 6.1 Levels of significance (p values from ANOVA) for effects of compost amendments on microbial biomass and activity in bulk soil and rhizo soil at Napoli and Torino sites, and differences between years Table 6.1 Levels of significance (p values from ANOVA) for effects of compost amendments on microbial biomass and activity in bulk soil and rhizo...

Aerated Static Pile Process

The identifying feature of the aerated static pile system is a grid of aeration piping for forced aeration. A blower or fan aerates the pile. The aerated static pile process consists of mixing of dewatered sludge with a bulking agent (usually, wood chips), construction of the composting pile over the grid of aeration piping, composting, screening of the compost, and curing and storage. Figure 7.5 shows an aerated static pile process of composting. The aeration grid is usually made of 100- to 150-mm (4- to 6-in.) perforated plastic pipe laid inside a 0.3-m (1-ft) plenum of wood chips. The wood chips facilitate even distribution of air during composting and absorb moisture that may condense and drain from the pile. The compost pile is constructed on top of the plenum. The pile is usually 2 to 2.5 m (6 to 8 ft) high. The entire pile is then covered with a 150- to 200-mm (6- to 8-in.)-thick layer of wood chips or unscreened finished compost for insulation. The forced air provides a more...

Design Considerations

In this section we describe the factors that need to be considered in the design and operation of composting facilities. These factors, the factors influencing composting described earlier, and the theoretical aspects of composting described in another section should be considered to meet the requirements of each composting system. Energy Balance Haug (1993) has shown that the organic decomposition in a composting operation is self-sustaining when the ratio W is less than 10, where mass of water in initial compost mixture Organic decomposition produces water and generates heat. To keep this ratio below 10, it is important that sufficient moisture is removed from the mixture by evaporation. However, the composting process temperature should be maintained for proper decomposition. The temperature in the mixture will not rise if rate of heat loss exceeds the rate of heat generation. Detention Time When the aerated static pile composting system was developed by the U.S. Department of...

Effects of landfill management

One-quarter of methane generated in the landfill cannot be captured by gas recovery systems due to low concentration of methane and resulting poor economy or is diffusely emitted during or after finishing the gas collection. A portion thereof can be oxidized in a landfill surface layer with a methane oxidizing substrate, such as compost or residues from mechanical-biological waste treatment. By this means the residual methane emissions can be reduced by about 60 percent in the case of the deposition of MSW.

Effects of Methods of Carbon Sequestration in Soil on Biochemical Indicators of Soil Quality

Abstract Here we describe the effects of carbon sequestration managements on soil enzymatic activities and PLFA patterns, as viable parameters to establish soil biochemical quality and its changes. We extensively review the available scientific literature related to experimental results on soil enzymatic activities and PLFA values from different soil treatments. This knowledge was then compared with the experimental results obtained within the MESCOSAGR project. It was found that MESCOSAGR findings are well in agreement with literature, and they show that the use of mature compost or adoption of reduced tillage practices provides an improvement of soil quality, as shown by a general increase in different enzymatic activities. The carbon sequestration method based on the in situ photo-polymerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by a water-soluble iron-porphyrin spread on soil did not show significant difference in soil biochemical quality from control. Changes in microbial...

Discussion of Results

We have used both bibliographic and original data from the MESCOSAGR project to compare the effects of C sequestration methods on selected biochemical indicators of soil quality, such as enzymatic activities and PLFAs. We found (Tables 7.1-7.6) that much information is available in literature in response to soil treatments such as addition of humified composted matter and different tillage systems, but it has never been summarized and critically evaluated. In the case of the carbon sequestration method based on the catalyst-assisted in situ photo-polymerization of SOM, there are no information yet available on the soil biological responses, and, thus, our results are original, together with those also reported in Chap. 6. According to literature, some trends were identified for the responses of enzymatic activities to compost addition (Table 7.2), and were even more definite for the responses to tillage (Table 7.3). Based on reports regarding 12 enzymatic activities, these were in...

Linking Mitigation and Adaptation

Achieving synergies between mitigation and adaptation strategies is most fruitful at the project level, where the activities are linked in very specific ways. In Dhaka, for instance, a CDM mitigation project uses organic waste to produce compost. This reduces methane emissions by diverting organic waste from landfills (where anaerobic processes occur that generate higher lev els of methane) to a composting plant (where aerobic processes occur).50 This mitigation project has clear potential for contributing to climate change resilience in rural areas. The impacts of climate change will include agroecosystem stresses in drought-prone areas in Bangladesh. Thus, enhancing soil organic matter content through organic manure to increase the moisture retention and fertility of soil both reduces the vulnerability to drought and increases the carbon sequestration rates of crops. Linking mitigation and adaptation in this way contributes to both long-term and short-term ecological and social...

Organic residue amendmentinduced biological soil suppressiveness

A diversity of soil amendments has been explored for the potential to yield a disease suppressive soil. Composts have been the most commonly used substrate in this context and extensive literature exists concerning development and utilization of plant-based composts for control of soil-borne plant diseases (Hoitink and Boehm, 1999 van der Gaag et al., 2007). These organic substrates have demonstrated significant capacity to induce disease suppression in defined environment or growth media conditions (Mandelbaum and Hadar, 1990 Widmer et al., 1998). However, while it may be arguable, there has been minimal effective use of such materials in field-level production agriculture for this intended purpose. There is no doubt that composts are utilized in a multitude of plant production systems, but consistently and predictably realizing the intended goal, that being the development of soil suppressiveness, has been elusive due to an inability to predict effects on soil biological composition...

Biological and Biotechnological Evaluation of Carbon Dynamics in Field Experiments

Abstract Bacteria and fungi play a key role in promoting soil organic matter (SOM) turn over and consequent nutrient availability to plants uptake. During SOM degradation, they contribute to transform highly complex biomolecules to smaller compounds, which are either immobilized by soil microflora or self-associated in humified and microbially stable superstructures. These processes rapidly occur in the rhizosphere where soil adheres to plant roots and microbial populations are more abundant and active than in bulk soil. Despite the difficulties in determining the composition of soil microbial communities, their genetic and functional diversities are fundamental to maintain soil quality and productivity, even under environmental stress or alteration. Within the national MESCOSAGR project, we provided indications on the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in soils subjected to carbon sequestration treatments. Nucleic acids were extracted from rhizosphere and bulk soils,...

Settlements 81 Introduction

Vegetation management in settlements may result in gains, losses, or transfers of carbon amongst the relevant pools. For example, branches removed during pruning or turfgrass clippings (biomass losses) may be left on site (transfer to litter), disposed of as solid waste (transfer to waste), or burned (emitted). Emissions of the relevant greenhouse gases are accounted for in the appropriate sections of the present guidance. For example, Table 2.3 in Chapter 2, Volume 5 (Waste), includes wood yard waste in national-scale statistics describing the fate of municipal solid waste at the national scale. Biomass removed as fuelwood from trees in settlements and used as fuel is accounted for in the Energy Sector. The net effect of conversion or management leading to increment, on the one hand, or to loss (such as from burning and decay), on the other, determines the overall C balance in settlements.

Settlements Remaining Settlements

The DOM pool in settlements contains dead wood and litter from both woody and herbaceous components. For the woody vegetation, changes in this pool can be quantified as production of coarse and fine litter from woody plants. For herbaceous vegetation, annual production of DOM is estimated as the accumulation of thatch plus production of herbaceous material such as garden waste and yard trimmings. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with Waste Sector are estimated in Volume 5 (Waste) and therefore the methods in this Chapter describe only those components of annual production that can reasonably be expected to stay on-site.

WARM a Tool for GHG Evaluation of Waste Management Strategies

WARM calculates GHG emissions for waste management practices, including source reduction, recycling, combustion, composting and deposition. In every calculation case a baseline and an alternative option are compared. The GHG emission factors were calculated following the LCA methodology (see chapter 8). A wide range of materials is considered (see table 12.14). For an explanation why recycling some materials reduces GHG emissions more than source reduction (e.g. aluminium) see EPA (2008b). composted composted Estimated distances from the curb to the landfill or waste treatment facility, as combustion, recycling or composting 20 miles

Improving end waste management in vegetable oil production

Several methods have been proposed for OMWW and olive disposal, based on evaporation ponds, thermal concentration, physicochemical and biological treatments, as well as their application to agricultural soils as an organic fertilizer either directly or after a composting process. Various processes have been developed for the treatment of organic fractions of differently composed wastes to upgrade them to more valuable, re-usable products, organic acids and solvents, and biopolymer or bio-surfactant production, or a least to recover their energy content. Different oxidation methods exist for the abatement of the major contaminants present in oil industrial waste-waters by ozone and or UV radiation versus solar light. The possibility of using an electrochemical treatment of OMWW to oxidize phenols and polyphenols has also been explored.

Option 22 Reduction ofbiodegradable waste to landfill

Waste to landfill can be reduced by recycling, open composting, closed composting or incineration. Paper recycling is the most profitable option with a 'cost' of - 2200 per tonne reduced CH4. Option 23 Reduction ofbiodegradable waste to landfill by composting or incineration Open composting is expensive with a cost of 1000 per tonne reduced CH4. Incineration of waste costs 1423 per tonne reduced CH4 and 'closed composting' costs as much as 1800 per tonne reduced CH4.

Method 4021 Framework

Composting and storage Basic units of livestock N excrement were derived from Tsuiki and Harada (1997), and N volatilization rate during composting and storage was derived from Mishima et al. (2008). Rate of excreta use and disposal was calculated from MAFF Cost of Livestock Products (MAFF 1986a, 1991a, 1996, 2001, 2006a) and Association of Livestock Production (1999). The amount applied to each kind of crop was calculated from the total amount of excreta used, and the amount applied to each kind of crop as a percentage of the total was calculated from results of MAFF questionnaires and Production Environment Statistics on chemical fertilizer use for each year. The N2O emission factor during composting and storage was derived from the IPCC default value (GIO, 2007). Factors for direct emission from farmland were calculated according to Akiyama et al. (2006), while those for indirect emissions were found according to IPCC default values (GIO, 2007).

Biomass for liquid fuels

Many of these potential drawbacks could be avoided or ameliorated by switching to so-called 'second generation' biofuels. Multinational biotechnology companies and governments in Europe and the US are investing heavily in R& D designed to achieve the technological breakthroughs that would make it possible to produce ethanol from lingo-cellulose. Wood, perennial grasses, crop residues, algae and ultimately even household waste could then be used for producing ethanol or biodiesel at a rate of productivity several times higher than using currently available technologies and feedstocks. Importantly, these second

Measurements of CO2 and N2O Emissions in the Agricultural Field Experiments of the Mescosagr Project

Abstract Soil organic matter (SOM) under agricultural management is a labile reservoir of C in the planet, and plays a key role in the production and emission to the atmosphere of two main greenhouse gases, CO2 and N2O. This chapter will overview one of the activities of the MESCOSAGR project that is the monitoring of CO2 and N2O emissions from soils under different agronomic treatments. The first part highlights the primary importance at global scale of SOM related to climatic change and agricultural management, including a description of processes involved in the CO2 and N2O evolution from soil. The state of the art of alternative techniques of SOM management in relation to CO2 and N2O emissions is discussed, also on the basis of the scarcity of literature data for Mediterranean croplands. The monitoring system of CO2 and N2O fluxes from field plots of the MESCOSAGR project indicated that compost additions were efficient in reducing fluxes from soils, especially for N2O and for the...

Modern Landfill Solutions

The waste industry foresees the development of additional landfill innovations in the future that will further protect the environment and human health. One of the most promising ideas is the bioreactor landfill, a system that adds liquids and or air to the waste in landfills in order to accelerate the biodegradation process, stabilize the landfill waste, and better seal it off from the surrounding environment. There are two types of bioreactor landfills aerobic, or using oxygen, in which water and air are circulated through the landfill, which increases normal composting-type decomposition of the organic material and anaerobic, or oxygen free, in which decomposition is stimulated simply by adding and recirculating liquids.

Biological Treatment Methods

Landfarming and composting, which are similar treatment methods, provide enhanced bioremediation without the use of mechanized systems. They are prepared-bed type treatments that require proper management of aeration, soil moisture and pH, nutrients, and temperature to affect biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil. Landfarming is an open-air process whereby petroleum-contaminated soil is amended with nutrients and then tilled in a lined biocell. A compost pile(s) can be constructed as a closed and insulated soil pile that is amended with a bulking agent (e.g., wood chips or sawdust) to enhance mixing and oxygenation, forced-air aeration, and nutrients over a smaller footprint. One treata-bility study for composting uses two or three small test piles of the soil to be treated, each amended with raw organic waste material (Savage et al. 1985). Once viable microbial populations are established in the seed piles, seed material is then blended with the target soil as compost piles...

Sludge Management and Treatment

Approximately 6.9 million ton of biosolids were generated in the United States in 1998, and about 60 of it was used beneficially in land applications, composting, and landfill cover. It is estimated that, by 2010, 8.2 million tons will be generated, and 70 of the biosolids is expected to be used beneficially (USEPA, 1999). Recycling options are described in various documents (Crites and Tchobanoglous, 1998 Crites et al., 2000 USEPA, 1994a, 1995a,c). Sludges are a common by-product from all waste treatment systems, including some of the natural processes described in previous chapters. Sludges are also produced by water treatment operations and by many industrial and commercial activities. The economics and safety of disposal or reuse options are strongly influenced by the water content of the sludge and the degree of stabilization with respect to pathogens, organic content, metals content, and other contaminants. This chapter describes several natural methods for sludge treatment and...

Uncertainty assessment

Composting - in-vessela Composting, typically in an enclosed channel, with forced aeration and continuous mixing. Composting - Static pilea Composting in piles with forced aeration but no mixing. Composting - Intensive windrow3 Composting in windrows with regular (at least daily) turning for mixing and aeration. Composting - Passive windrowa Composting in windrows with infrequent turning for mixing and aeration. May be similar to open pits in enclosed animal confinement facilities or may be designed and operated to dry the manure as it accumulates. The latter is known as a high-rise manure management system and is a form of passive windrow composting when designed and operated properly. a Composting is the biological oxidation of a solid waste including manure usually with bedding or another organic carbon source typically at thermophilic temperatures produced by microbial heat production.

Measurements of CO2 and N2O Fluxes from Soil 921 State of the Art on Soil Gases Measurements

Among alternative soil managements, minimum tillage, green and animal manure have been largely studied. Research on the use of compost in agricultural soils has been mostly focused on nutrition and environment aspects, i.e., OM quantity and quality, accessibility of organic contaminants and heavy metals, crops yield, soil microbial response. Fewer studies were devoted on GHGs emissions from soils following compost addition. Moreover, no examples are up-to-date present in literature for the use of catalysts in soils to structurally modify SOM and increase carbon fixation.

General Remarks as Rationale for Future Experimentations

Positive effects of compost addition on reduction of soil N2O fluxes was observed in both sites, though the long-term data set of Napoli suggests that the phenomenon may be also dependent on crop phase. This may be due to either a slow release of organic N from the humified compost material, or a greater N uptake by plants and its reduced availability to nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Moreover, an improved N uptake by roots may be facilitated by the bioactivity of humic molecules present in the soil solution. Residual effect of compost addition on N2O emissions during autumn-winter period (after maize crop) is allowed by the slow mineralization of N, that becomes more available for nitrifiers and denitrifiers because maize root system no longer compete for N. Based on this, it may be interesting to also grow a winter cover crop under the same soil treatments, in order to prove a reduced effect of residual compost.

Active Restoration Techniques

Is a major limiting factor for seedling establishment of native shrubs and trees. These techniques include artificial shading, irrigation in the dry season, elimination of herb competition, use of gels that absorb and very slowly release water, ground preparation to increase infiltration, and microtopography modification to canalise run-off toward the reforested plots. When nutrients are limiting, manure and compost from agricultural, industrial, or sewage plants' residues have been utilised. Another technique that has successfully been used is planting the seedling below the canopy of naturally established nurse shrubs, which provide an ameliorated microenvironment for the introduced seedlings. Many of these techniques are discussed in more detail in other chapters of this book. It should be noted that the choice of technique will need to be determined by the climatic, biophysical, and socioeconomic conditions.

Commission Directive 9386EEC of 4 October 1993 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 91157EEC on batteries

Whereas appliances need not be marked, since Annex II to Directive 91 157 EEC provides for a special information system for appliances from which the consumer cannot easily remove the battery or accumulator Whereas there is a need for a symbol clearly showing that batteries or accumulators covered by Directive 91 157 EEC should be collected separately from other household waste

Planned Ecosystem Engineers

A half century later, Albert Howard, an Englishman working in India, devised his famous Indore composting system, which was far more than simply a composting system. Howard's approach, which we can presume came from extensive observations of and conversations with Indian farmers, was focused on the health of the soil, arguing that a healthy soil, by which he meant one that contained a well-balanced mixture of worms, fungi, and bacteria and other microorganisms, would produce healthy food, while a soil devoid of those healthy elements would not produce such healthy food. Indeed, the connection between ecological health on the farm and the health-promoting qualities of food produced there was a key element of the early organic agriculture movement (Conford 2001). Howard thus noticed the immense effect of ecological engineers (i.e., worms, fungi, and bacteria and other microorganisms in the soil) in creating what he referred to as a healthy soil. Modern soil science completely accepts...

Data from waste stream analyses

The figure above shows an example of a paper waste flow chart for analysis of change in DOCm in waste during the treatment before disposal. Some portion of paper waste would be recovered as material, and be diverted from the waste management flow. The DOCm in paper waste is reduced by intermediate processes, such as composting and incineration before disposal at the SWDS. Mass of total waste, DOCm and moisture at the exit of each process can be given by multiplying mass of these components at the entrance by reduction rates of the process. In this figure the changes of mass are studied for paper waste solely, although the treatment steps would usually include also other waste types. Incineration will remove most of the moisture, but the ash will be re-wetted to avoid the fly loss during transportation and loading into SWDS. Greenhouse gas emissions from other categories than SWDS (i.e., resource recovery, composting, incineration and use on land) should be estimated under guidelines...

New Modeling Approach to Describe and Predict Carbon Sequestration Dynamics in Agricultural Soils

Abstract The contribution of agro-ecosystems to carbon sequestration in the form of soil organic matter (SOM) is increasingly considered as a mitigating factor for climate change. The ecosystem carbon storage depends on the balance between C inputs and outflows due to SOM breakdown. SOM decomposition has been reported as mostly affected by temperature and water availability, at global and regional scale, and by C quality at local scale, where climate can be considered relatively uniform. In this work, a new model of SOM decomposition is presented. The SOMDY model is based on an advanced description of SOM chemical quality by 13C-CPMAS NMR instead of traditional C N ratio. The model includes also the effects of physical aggregation of organic matter. SOMDY was calibrated on CO2 emission data from extensive field experimental measurements. The simulation results showed the model capability to predict SOM changes during decomposition processes, including the effects of addition of...

Procedures and Performance

Human pathogen reduction in a field experiment with vermiculture (vermi-composting) was found to reduce fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., enteric viruses, and helminth ova more effectively than composting (Eastman et al., 2001). The ratio of earthworms (Eisenia foetida) to biosolids was 1 1.5 wet weight. After 144 hr, fecal coliforms showed a 6.4-log reduction, while a control experiment showed only a 1.6-log reduction. Salmonella spp. reduction was 8.6 log, and the control reduction was 4.9 log. Enteric viruses were reduced by 4.6 log as compared to 1.8 log reduction in the control. Helminth ova reduction was 1.9 log vs. 0.6 log in the control.

Conveyance and Storage of Biosolids

Field Stockpiling Field stockpiling is used for short-term storage of dewa-tered cake, dried, or composted class A or B biosolids at the land application site. It is generally limited to the amount of biosolids needed to meet agronomic or reclamation requirements at a field or site. Field stockpiles should be placed in the best physical location possible in or adjacent to the fields that will receive the biosolids. For sites with a significant slope, provisions need to be made to manage up- and down-slope water. Forming windrows across slopes should be avoided to reduce the potential for piles to become anaerobic at the base where overland flow accumulates. To the extent possible, piles should be shaped to shed water. Stockpiled biosolids form an air-dried crust that sheds precipitation and prevents significant percolation of water through the pile. Nonetheless, some states require that stockpiles be covered. For composted or dried (at least 50 solids) bio-solids, tarps, wind...

Methodological Issues

Composting and anaerobic digestion of organic waste, such as food waste, garden (yard) and park waste and sludge, is common both in developed and developing countries. Advantages of the biological treatment include reduced volume in the waste material, stabilisation of the waste, destruction of pathogens in the waste material, and production of biogas for energy use. The end products of the biological treatment can, depending on its quality, be recycled as fertiliser and soil amendment, or be disposed in SWDS. Composting is an aerobic process and a large fraction of the degradable organic carbon (DOC) in the waste material is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2). CH4 is formed in anaerobic sections of the compost, but it is oxidised to a large extent in the aerobic sections of the compost. The estimated CH4 released into the atmosphere ranges from less than 1 percent to a few per cent of the initial carbon content in the material (Beck-Friis, 2001 Detzel et al, 2003 Arnold, 2005)....

Choice of emission factors

The emissions from composting, and anaerobic digestion in biogas facilities, will depend on factors such as type of waste composted, amount and type of supporting material (such as wood chips and peat) used, temperature, moisture content and aeration during the process. Composting

Solid Wastes Disposal

Small quantities of household CCA-treated timber waste (e.g., offcuts from a small job) could be placed in the owner's rubbish bin, with the rest of owner's household waste. CCA-treated timber waste from larger household building and demolition jobs is classified as inert waste, and can be disposed of to most suburban landfills.

Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration and Food Security

Simulation models for crop production and soil processes are imperfect but valuable tools. Useful models can be continuously improved through testing. Models can be particularly useful for testing hypotheses related to management strategies designed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and to soil improvement practices.

Theoretical Scenarios and Future Applications

Figure 11.6 shows a qualitative example of such emerging complex interactions. Addition of fresh labile organic materials induces a flush of decomposition process with a sudden rise of CO2 emissions, due to an increased microbial mineralization of the added substrate. Interestingly, also the emissions from resistant components of SOM show a smooth increase due to the well-known priming effect (Kuzyako 2002) caused by a greater microbial activity (Fig. 11.6, left-hand side). Furthermore, the addition of a well-humified and or stabilized EOM such as mature compost induces a relatively slight mineralization increase of the added EOM, but also increases the protection on labile compounds, whose emissions are consequently reduced (Fig. 11.6, right-hand side).

Biological basis of biowastes

Food processing waste is derived from the processing of biological materials and is, in the main, biodegradable. Biowaste is defined in the landfill directive as 'waste capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition such as food and garden waste, and paper and cardboard'. The waste may be derived from plant, animal, fungal and bacterial sources, with the plant and animal origins predominating. A list of key production processes that create waste streams has been identified in the AWARENET handbook (2004 see also Fig. 1.3). A variety of waste streams will be created by the different stages of each process these have also been described generically (AWARENET, 2004). Biological wastes are highly complex since they have been derived from highly intricate living organisms and can range from whole, unused (rejected) materials through to fractions and mixtures produced by physical, thermal, chemical and biochemical processing of the original raw material. Plant wastes include...

Introduction food processing waste the scale of the problem

There are a number of reasons why so much food processing waste is produced, some economic and some technological. Traditional methods of food preparation result in relatively small amounts of locally produced domestic waste which, in the past, would have been disposed of as feed, by composting or through municipal waste disposal. However, industrial food processing, particularly that associated with the production of ready-to-eat meals, has created large, geographically localized waste streams which have generally increased over time as firms have sought to benefit from economies of scale. Furthermore, the majority of food processing systems were developed at least 20-30 (or more) years ago when waste disposal - particularly in the vegetable, cereal and fruit processing industries - was not the issue it is today. The amounts of waste, as a proportion of the raw material, are shown in Fig. 1.3. In the past, the value added by processing a portion of a raw food material to create a...

The Siallon Process A Overview

The only limitation on the process is that the hydrocarbon or organic contaminant has to be emulsifiable. This means that a wide variety of contaminants such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, motor oil, crude oil, greases and lube oils, coal tars, PCBs, chlorinated solvents, and many others can all be successfully treated within a soil or sludge matrix. Similarly, the physical nature of the host material plays little part in the final remediation results. All types of soils, from sand to clay, sludges, and tars, respond well to treatment, with the only modifications being to the actual processing or mixing equipment utilized. Pug mills, ribbon blenders, Bomags, and modified soil composting equipment have been used for the application and mixing of the Siallon reagents.

Siallon Applications And Mixing Equipment

For soil remediation on specific sites where the contaminant has little or no volatile component, there is a large amount of debris or cobble in the soil, and there is sufficient space to lay out the contaminated soil in windrows, a tractor-driven soil-mixing machine has found application. The Dirt Witch is similar to equipment used for composting soil in its overall design. The differences are in the mixing blades, the spray system, and the control system. The equipment used for the application of Siallon reagents is modified to provide intimate soil mixing rather than the simple blending accomplished with composting machines. The mixing blades are L-shaped to provide maximum turbulence in the soil. Reagent is added from a bulk storage tank controlled by pressure settings and flow rate to provide the proper spray pattern and force

Mr Gacheru Madison Wisconsin

Aboulam S, Morvan B, Revel JC (2006) Use of a rotating-drum pilot plant to model the composting of household waste on an industrial scale. Compost Sci Util 14 184-190 Ahmad R, Khalid A, Arshad M, Zahir AZ, Mahmood T (2008) Effect of compost enriched with N and L-tryptophan on soil and maize. Agron Sustain Dev 28 299-305 Alexa L, Der S, Kovacs D, F leky Gy (2004) Soil improvement with composted agricultural waste materials. 4th International Congress of the ESSC, Budapest Amlinger F, G tz B, Dreher P, Geszti J, Weissteiner C (2003) Nitrogen in biowaste and yard waste compost dynamics of mobilization and availability - a review. Eur J Soil Biol 39 107-116 Anonymus (1953) Reclamation of municipal refuse by composting. Tech Bull No 9. Sanitary Bernal MP, Sanchez-Monedero MA, Paredes C, Roig A (1998) Carbon mineralization from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil. Agric Ecosyst Environ 69 175-189 countries. ECN ORBIT Workshop, N rnberg Bloch M...

Table 24 Energy Efficiency of Biogas Production System and Incineration with Power Generation

As previously discussed, incineration of food wastes together with other miscellaneous wastes is not a suitable solution because of the generation of hazardous ash containing DXNs and heavy metals doing so also threatens food recycling efforts. A recommended option would be composting followed by the combination of biogas production and composting of the sludge. 47. Sakai, S.Booklet Let's make compost and fermented feed from garbage (in Japanese), 2000.