Commercial Real Estate Financing

Commercial Real Estate Funding System

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Commercial Real Estate Funding System Summary


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Reconstructing Historical Hurricanes

Corresponding sustained wind speed values are derived from Fujita's equations (1971), assuming a wind gust factor of 1.5 over land. bDescribed as well constructed or owned by a wealthy person (PR) also municipal buildings (PR). cConstructed with light wood frame and metal roof (PR). dF2 assigned if buildings described as rural or poor (PR). eAlso schools, sugar mills, commercial buildings, and military buildings (PR). fConstructed of palm leaves or similar materials (PR). Adapted from Boose et al. 2001, in press.

Solar Energy Result Conclusion

Doughty, M.R.C. and Hammond, G.P., 2004. Sustainability and the built environment at and beyond the city scale, Building and Environment, 39(10) 1223-1233. Eaton, K.J. and Amato, A., 1998. A Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Modern Office Buildings. The Steel Construction Institute, Berkshire. SCI Publication 182. Hammond, G.P., 2000. Energy, environment and sustainable development a UK perspective. Trans IChemE Part B Process Safety and Environmental Protection 78 304-323.

Moving Toward Sustainable Construction in Malaysia

Have also been involved in organizing many symposiums and conferences to raise the awareness on sustainable development and to exchange knowledge in this field. Holcim Malaysia has founded a Foundation for Sustainable Construction to promote innovative approaches to sustainable construction and to recognize outstanding achievements through competition and international forum awards (Hol-cim, 2006). At present, there are several sustainable projects that are being or have been constructed in Malaysia. One of the examples is project Tanarimba at Janda Baik, Pahang. Tanarimba is a sustainable housing project that blends man-made and natural elements in an exciting concept of ecologically sensitive community development and also introduces the world to eco-tourism opportunities in Malaysian highlands. The project has been dubbed as the forefront of the ecological movement in construction (Tanarimba, 2006). Another example is the DDC Project (Demonstration and Documentation Centre for...

Co2 Capture Separation With Membranes

Co2 Capture Separation With Membranes

Capturing CO2 directly from small and mobile sources in the transportation and residential & commercial building sectors is expected to be more difficult and expensive than from large point sources. Small-scale capture is therefore not further discussed in this chapter. An alternative way of avoiding emissions of CO2 from these sources would be by use of energy carriers such as hydrogen or electricity produced in large fossil fuel-based plants with CO2 capture or by using renewable energy sources. Production of hydrogen with CO2 capture is included in this chapter.

Building Materials Their Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impact

Embodied energy is sometimes defined as the non-renewable energy used during the entire life cycle of a product. Initial embodied energy in buildings is the energy used in extracting raw materials, processing materials, manufacturing, transporting, and constructing buildings. Recurring embodied energy is the energy used to maintain, repair, or replace materials during the life of a building. Cole and Kernan 19 analyzed a typical Canadian office building and found that recurring embodied energy becomes important over the life of a building. Cole and Kernan showed that when an office building is 50 years old, recurring embodied energy is about 144 of the initial embodied energy.

Increasing Energy Efficiency and CO2 Mitigation in Buildings

Immediate, off-the-shelf options exist for increasing the energy efficiency of residential and commercial buildings regardless of building age or type. The method resulting in maximum energy use reduction will vary by region, building type, etc., making a nationwide or global drive complex, likely relying on regional incentives and techniques. The IPCC 2 presents just such a regionally based technology recommendation to increase energy efficiency in buildings, including parameters such as cost effectiveness, technology stage, and appropriateness. An example of this regional dependence is the use of structural insulation panels in building design for

Nonconventional water resources

Apart from the conventional wastewater from urban areas, which consists mainly of domestic wastewater with small amounts of industrial waste-water, there is the possibility to separate different types of wastewaters at their source the houses. Ledin et al. (2001) describe the possibility to reuse infiltrate so-called 'diluted', 'light' or 'grey' wastewater. All three terms refer to wastewater produced in households, office buildings and schools as well as some types of industries, where there is no contribution from toilets or heavily polluted process water. Grey wastewater is waste-water from baths, showers, hand-basins, washing machines and dishwashers, laundries and kitchen sinks. This type of wastewater has been estimated to account for about 73 of the volume of combined residential sewage. In general terms, grey wastewater has lower concentrations of organic matter, some nutrients (e.g. nitrogen) and microorganisms than combined wastewater. However, the concentration of...

The Impact of Emissions from Building Materials on Energy

Outdoor air intake rates for new commercial buildings are usually determined using the Ventilation Rate Procedure. Outdoor air rates based on people-related pollutant sources and area-related sources are listed in ANSI ASHRAE Standard 62.1. Outdoor air intake rates for area-related sources (the building and its materials) are converted to units of cubic feet per minute (cfm) person using default occupant density values from the Standard. People and area outdoor air rates are added to determine the total outdoor air intake rate. The Ventilation Rate Procedure is a relatively simple method for determining outdoor air intake rates based on assumed pollutant emissions from people and materials in buildings, and is the chosen procedure for nearly 100 of building covered by the standard. Outdoor air intake rates can be reduced through the use of the IAQ Procedure with the selection of building materials with lower emissions (contaminant source strengths), and energy savings can result....

Threats and Responses Associated with Rapid Climate Change in Metropolitan New York

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Metropolitan New York is vulnerable to coastal flooding and widespread damage to urban infrastructure, commercial structures and residential neighborhoods from both seasonal hurricanes and extra-tropical storms. A significant portion of the metropolitan area lies less than 3 m above mean sea level in total covering an area of about 260 km2 (see Figure 9.1). Many types of structures are located within this low-lying region, including commercial properties and financial institutions, apartment buildings and private dwellings, hospitals, police and fire stations, marine transportation terminals, three major airports, heliports, numerous underground railroad and subway lines (with associated station entrances and ventilation shafts), highways, bridge access roads, tunnels, power plants, the underground steam district heating system, electrical and communication networks, landfills, 14 waste water treatment facilities and 770 combined sewer overflows with their tide gate regulators...

Effects of Garbage on the Environment and Human Health

Been converted to new uses without cleaning up what lies underground. According to the advocacy group Zero Waste America, It is not unusual to find old landfills or randomly buried hazardous and non-hazardous waste under new or old homes, on farmland, or on commercial property in cities, suburbs, and rural areas. 5 These sites may still be leaking toxins into ground-water and air, or otherwise polluting the environment, including the farms, homes, offices, or stores that may now be perched on top of them. The only way to tell for sure that a site is safe is to conduct environmental testing of the soil and air.

Why Building are Important to Climate Change

Residential and commercial buildings account for 35 of the total global energy consumption. In the United States, the energy usage by the built environment outpaces both transportation (28 ) and industrial energy use (32 ) (See Fig. 7.1) 3 . Studies indicate that buildings are responsible for 71 of the total electricity consumption 3 . There has been a prolonged and substantial increase in electrical demand since 1973. Data in 2003 indicated that electricity accounted for 38 of energy consumption in the commercial and residential sectors in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries 17 . Over the last 30 years there has been a shift in the fuel that buildings use. Oil, although it has continued to increase in absolute terms has lost ground to natural gas and electricity and currently accounts for 18 of the energy supply. Natural gas has now become the dominant fuel in residential buildings, while electricity is the dominant fuel in commercial buildings 4...

Increased End Use Efficiency

In the following sections, we discuss a few of the approaches for improving energy end-use efficiency in residential and commercial buildings. The particular approaches do not cover the full spectrum of available options, but are representative of some of the potential environmental impacts associated with these types of approaches.

Methane combustion and flaring

Ideally, any CH4 generated during wastewater treatment and the digestion of solid wastes like manure and domestic sewage sludge should be recovered and used as an energy source. There are incentives from governments to promote the use of biologically generated CH4 as a replacement for natural gas. However, in most cases the biogas generated in digesters is used for electricity generation with combined heat and power (CHP) generators. In most European countries electricity from biogas is considered as renewable and is subsidized. The heat generated through biogas combustion in CHP systems is often used to warm the input of the digester and digester content, and the surplus can be used for drying the solid fraction after separation of the digested manure. It may also be used to heat commercial buildings or residential areas. In the latter case it can be more profitable to install the CHP near the heat-demanding area and transport the biogas instead of transporting the heat.

Understanding Tradeoffs for a Successful Energy Policy

How do you take a 29-year old office building from a 1-star to a 4-star rating under the Australian Building Greenhouse Rating (ABGR) scheme It has been achieved by 'looking for better ways of doing things'. The results have been startling, with the Council's overall electricity bill slashed from USD 1 million in 1995 to around USD 550,000 per year. This equates to greenhouse gas savings of approximately 1,303 tons, equivalent to taking 289 cars permanently off the road. The Council's administration building alone has reduced energy costs from USD 168,000 in 1995 to USD 65,000 in 2003. If the Council had not implemented energy savings, the 2003 energy bill would have been USD 1.2 million.

Use And Development

400- 600 per house and low maintenance, these solar panels already appoint thousands of rooftops in India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Brazil. In addition to residential buildings, many commercial buildings are now starting to add photovoltaic cells, as well. Large areas such as rooftops of office buildings are ideal places for these cells, as they are otherwise wasted space. They are also high enough to avoid any obstructions that might block exposure to the sun.

Aleut Corporation

Most of the Aleut Corporation's land entitlements are located between Port Moller on the Alaska Peninsula and the western tip of Atka Island in the central Aleutians, as well as on the Shumagin and Pribilof Islands. The corporation owns the village site on Attu Island and numerous historical and burial sites. No known oil or natural gas is present underneath the islands, and no timber on the tundra, and only limited gold or other mining prospects. Instead, the Aleut Corporation is a multi-industry conglomerate that manages and sells sand, gravel, and rock aggregates as part of its subsurface rights within the region. With the initial capital from the ANCSA settlement, the company made a number of investments in commercial real estate, government operations and maintenance contracts, construction, aggregate sales, and oil- and gas-producing properties in and out of Alaska. Subsidiaries of the corporation include the Aleut Enterprise Corporation, Akima Corporation, Ki LLC, SMI...


The first focus of the plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was on electricity generation. With some 98 percent having come from coal-fired power plants, the government encouraged greater efficiency in generation, with increased use of renewable energy sources, with wind power, solar thermal energy, and photovoltaic cells and panels. There were also new regulations regarding the building of residential and commercial buildings to encourage changes in design to help with energy efficiency. This saw the introduction of Home Energy Rating Systems and Energy Star labeling. There were also moves to promote fuel-efficiency of automobiles, and to encourage public transport.

Types Of Waste

Garbage or trash is a component of municipal solid waste, which includes all of the wastes commonly generated in residences, commercial buildings, and institutional buildings. Municipal solid wastes consist of such things as paper, packaging, plastics, food wastes, glass, wood, and discarded appliances. Similar kinds of wastes generated by industrial facilities also are part of municipal solid wastes. The additional wastes generated by manufacturing processes, construction activities, mining and drilling operations, agriculture, and electric power production are referred to as industrial wastes. The environmental threats posed by municipal and industrial wastes are varied. Though defined as nonhazardous wastes, many of these wastes are capable of harming human health and the viability of other living species. They

Energy Consumption

Today, about 40 percent of U.S. energy use is in the myriad private, commercial, and institutional activities associated with residential and commercial buildings, while roughly 30 percent is used in industry and the same amount in the transport of goods and passengers (see Chapter 13). Most significantly for GHG emissions, 86 percent of the U.S. energy supply now comes from the combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, and

The Survey

Construction such as property and commercial building located in the area of Kuala Lumpur (capital city of Malaysia) and Selangor. These areas were selected because many construction developers, who have projects throughout Malaysia, are based there. All construction development companies from these areas were approached when conducting the postal survey. The list of the companies was obtained from the Real Estate and Housing Developers' Association (REHDA). A total of 271 respondents were approached and 35 questionnaires were returned for analysis. The data gathered were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Software called Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data quantitatively. This software enabled the data to be transferred automatically from spreadsheet to graphic to present the data in a more attractive manner. The averaging statistical analysis was also used to calculate straightforward totals, percentages, and averages. Qualitative...

Energy Efficiency

Many proposed strategies to limit the magnitude of future climate change focus on increasing energy efficiency, especially in the near term. A substantial body of research backs up the technical potential for large energy efficiency improvements. For example, the recent report Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States (NRC, 2009c) included a comprehensive review of information on the performance, costs, and GHG emissions reducing potential of different energy efficient technologies and processes for residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation.

Eileen Claussen

Whether we like it or not, global warming is shaping up as one of the most important challenges of the 21st century. It is going to drive far-reaching changes in how we live and work, power our homes, schools, factories, and office buildings, get from one place to another, manufacture and transport goods, and even farm and manage forests. It touches every aspect of our economy and our lives, and to ignore it is to live in a fantasy land where nothing ever has to change - and where we never have to accept what science tells us about what is happening to our world.


Figure 15.5, for example, shows one set of measurements of N02, HONO, and NO after injection of N02 into a home used for research purposes (Spicer et al., 1993). As N02 decays, HONO is formed. Small amounts of NO are also generated, as has been observed in laboratory studies (e.g., Spicer et al., 1989). Delayed release of HONO was observed, suggesting that HONO was adsorbed in part on the surfaces and was subsequently released to the gas phase. For example, when the house was purged with outside air, the HONO levels dropped however, on closing up the house again, the levels increased immediately to a few ppb. Degassing of HONO from the interior surfaces of automobiles has also been reported (Febo and Perrino, 1995). Interestingly, in measurements made in a commercial office building, indoor HONO concentrations were observed not to be enhanced under conditions of high indoor 03, suggesting that dissolved HONO in a surface film of water is readily oxidized to nitrate by 03 (Weschler et...

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