Allergic rhinitis is a symptomatic disorder of the nose induced by an IgE-mediated inflammation of the nasal membranes in response to allergen exposure. Symptoms of rhinitis include rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, nasal itching and sneezing which will be cured spontaneously or with treatment. The severity of allergic rhinitis can be classified as mild or moderate-severe (Fig. 5.1) based on symptoms and quality of life parameters. Fig. 5.1 Classification of allergic rhinitis Previously, allergic rhinitis was subdivided based on the time of exposure into seasonal, perennial and occupational diseases (9-11). Perennial allergic rhinitis is most frequently caused by indoor allergens such as dust mites, moulds, insects (cockroaches) and animal danders. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is related to a wide variety of outdoor allergens such as pollen or moulds. However, this subdivision is not entirely satisfactory since Thus, a major change in the subdivision of allergic rhinitis has been proposed...
Drug formulating processes consist of mixing (liquids or solids), palletizing, encapsulating, and packaging. Raw materials utilized by a drug formulator and packager may include ingredients such as sugar, corn syrup, cocoa, lactose, calcium, gelatin, talc, diatomaceous, earth, alcohol, wine, glycerin, aspirin, penicillin, and so on. These plants are mainly engaged in the production of pharmaceuticals primarily of a nonprescription type, including medications for arthritis, coughs, colds, hay fever, sinus and bacterial infections, sedatives, digestive aids, and skin sunscreens. Wastewater characteristics of
Historically important countermeasures include early warning and surveillance systems, air conditioning, access to health care, public education, vector control, infrastructure standards and air quality management. Cities that currently experience heatwaves are expected to experience an increase in intensity and duration of these events by the end of the century, with potential for adverse health effects. The growing number of the elderly is most at risk. Water-borne diseases and degraded water quality are very likely to increase with more heavy precipitation. Warming and climate extremes are likely to increase respiratory illness, including exposure to pollen and ozone. Climate change is likely to increase risk and geographic spread of vector-borne infectious diseases, including Lyme disease and West Nile virus. 14.2.5, 14.2.6, 14.4.5,14.4.6,14.5
Further epidemiological studies are required to fully understand the impact on the incidence and prevalence of infections. Even a modest effect on the immune system that may result in a moderate depression of resistance to an infection, or affect its duration or severity, may have a significant aggregate social and economic impact at the population level for very common diseases (such as the common cold and gastroenteritis).
Louisiana is also vulnerable to increased impacts on public health resulting from global climatic changes. Owing to its location near the poleward margin of the domain of tropical diseases, small increases in frost-free season length may be accompanied by significantly more cases of encephalitis, West Nile virus, dengue fever, and other tropical diseases. Increased impacts of heat waves will affect the disadvantaged and elderly disproportionately. Moreover, as summer temperatures rise under clear skies, tropospheric ozone is likely to become an increasing problem in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-designated Baton Rouge non-attainment zone and elsewhere. Effects of tropospheric ozone include respiratory illness, damage to plant membranes, and increased oxidation rates on physical structures. Rising temperatures will also increase the bacterial contamination of shellfish. Rises in water tables induced by additional precipitation and or sea level rise would also place...
Tropospheric ozone is not only a greenhouse gas (GHG) it is also classified as a criteria air pollutant. Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed from the action of sunlight on ozone precursors such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (see Chapter 6). Human-caused emissions of ozone precursors have led to large increases in tropospheric ozone over the past century (Marenco et al., 1994 Wang and Jacob, 1998). When increased ozone events occur simultaneously with heat waves, the mortality rate can rise by as much as 175 percent (Filleul et al., 2006). Acute exposure to elevated concentrations of ozone is associated with increased hospital admissions for pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other respiratory diseases, and also with premature mortality (e.g., Bell et al., 2005, 2006 Gryparis et al., 2004 Ito et al., 2005 Levy et al., 2005 Mudway and Kelly, 2000). A National Research Council committee concluded that...
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major indoor pollutant. Both the National Research Council (NRC) and USEPA have indicated that passive smoking significantly increases the risk of lung cancer in adults and respiratory illness in children. It is composed of irritating gases and carcinogenic tar particles. Nonsmokers breathing ETS are called involuntary smokers, passive smokers, or second-hand smokers. There are more than 4700 chemical compounds in cigarette combustion products, such as carbon monoxide, carcinogenic tars, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, and arsenic. Of the chemicals, 43 have been recognized as carcinogens.
Depending on progress in health care, infrastructure, technology and access, climate change could increase the risk of heatwave deaths, water-borne diseases and degraded water quality 14.4.1 , respiratory illness through exposure to pollen and ozone, and vector-borne infectious diseases (low confidence) 14.2.5, 14.4.5 .
Extreme heat can be fatal, and hurricanes and tornadoes cause injuries and damage infrastructure. Air pollution can be linked to respiratory illness, and drought can lead to malnutrition. These are just a few examples of how weather and climate can influence human health. Climate change has the potential to affect any health outcome that is sensitive to environmental conditions. However, the causal chain linking climate change to shifting patterns of health threats and outcomes is complicated by factors such as wealth, distribution of income, status of public health infrastructure, provision of preventive and acute medical care, and access to and appropriate use of health care information. As with many other consequences of climate change, concurrent changes in nonclimatic factors, such as combustion-related air pollution, will influence the severity of future health impacts.