Probably it is also interesting to look at the past How did climate changes in the past affect ecosystems and human societies I am thinking for example of the warm period during the middle ages What is known about that

Actually, that is how I got interested myself in climate change. I was looking at the effect of climate variability on marginal agriculture in Britain and Scotland in upland areas. In these marginal areas, and in conditions of poverty, you undoubtedly had greater exposure to weather variability. When the weather was adverse, people suffered.

Now, the warm period in the Early Middle Ages may have encouraged farmers to move uphill, but I suspect that they were more driven there by population pressure in the lowlands; and, when adverse weather did set in (and it seems to have become more frequent in the Later Middle Ages) then these marginal upland farmers suffered. So, the vulnerability of these people seems to have been due both the socio-economic as well as to climatic factors; and this is almost certainly also true of people and climate change in the future.

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