Salinger et al. (2000) have reviewed the situation in that frequent large scale fires are related to inappropriate environmental management, wasteful logging practices, poor fire prevention and fire-fighting systems if not purposely induced. However, burning is a land planning technique widely used in the diminishing shifting cultivation and extensive livestock-keeping to clear land. When well timed and controlled, the natural vegetation will respond with new healthy growth. Ill-timed or poorly controlled burning can seriously reduce the amount of organic matter on the soil surface and leave it exposed to erosion by wind and water (Reijntjes et al. 1992).
Related to this disaster is haze pollution and the transboundary component has led to an international agreement in Asia, including assistance in combating forest fires, tte related deforestation is diminished in Brazil by satellite surveillance of the Amazon area and other successful experiments to slow and even reverse environmental degradation, and this system has been proposed for Indonesia as well (Leitmann 2004), to reduce its contribution to the "Asian Brown Cloud", ttese are all preparedness measures for resource protection as parts of adaptation strategies that are challenges met in disaster risk mainstreaming.
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