To cope with agrometeorological risk and uncertainties effectively, they should be observed, detected, monitored, assessed, forecasted, warned by relevant authorities at national or local levels and then delivered to a farmer's site in a timely manner and with certain level of reliability. It should be based on systematic framework provided by government's risk management authorities including NMHS of each country for better risk management. Agricultural sectors or authorities also should establish response strategies to cope with agrometeorological risks and uncertainties at national and local levels, furthermore at regional and global level through international collaborations.
ttere are more challenges in newly emerging countries, not only because of lack of available resources and systems against risks, but also because of complexities in domestic structures while experiencing transit from traditional to modern society, tte new social system maybe more prone or vulnerable to even the normal degree of normal environmental variations primarily due to accelerated degradation of surrounding natural environment through industrialization and urbanization.
Degrading environmental conditions, when compounded by severe climatic events such as recurrent droughts, will cause more serious negative effects, making the drylands increasingly vulnerable, and furthermore desertification. In coping with risks systematically, especially when main risks are compounded with other factors, a reliable risk management system is essential to prevent or mitigated potential risks and uncertainties through appropriate preparedness and response strategies, which will be also a major challenge in decision making in farm managements.
Risk management system in agricultural meteorology can comprise of early warning systems provided by government authorities and agricultural management systems operated at farmer's site: tte former will be mainly responsible for issuing warnings and advisories from authorities, while the latter for preparedness and response measures being made by farmers. It also needs proper communication mechanisms between two systems to share information in timely manner.
Early warning helps to reduce economic losses by allowing farmers to better protect their assets and livelihoods. It can guide farmers in selling livestock or selecting appropriate crops for a drought. It aims at reducing not only the immediate impact of a disaster but also the knock-on effects on assets that can reduce economic well being and increase poverty. Early warning information allows farmers to make decisions that contribute to their own economic self-sufficiency and their sustainability. If well integrated into a systematic framework of risk reduction, early warning systems can provide many development benefits to farmers.
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