Considering acceptable levels of risk, accurate risk scenarios should be generated that can show the potential impacts of hazards on vulnerable groups. It requires capabilities to analyze not only the hazards, but also the vulnerabilities to the hazards, and the consequential risks as well by risk assessment using computer resources and readily available software like geographic information systems. Risks are usually characterized through risk mapping, frequency distributions, scenario plans and exercises, annualized risk mapping and qualitative measures. Capabilities in science, technology and research, and the availability and sustainability of observation networks will decide how efficiently high-quality data can be based on the magnitude, duration, location and timing of hazard events and to extract information on hazard frequency and severity from observational data sets. To fill up data gaps, poor communication network and computer resources.
Requirements of the DMSS components include: On-going, systematic and consistent observations of hazard-relevant parameters; Quality assurance and proper archiving of the data into temporally and geographically referenced and consistently catalogued observational data sets; Capacities to locate and retrieve needed data and to freely disseminate data to public users; and Sufficient dedicated resources to support these activities.
Improvements in the quality, timeliness and lead time of hazard warnings are also essential in EWS. ttey have been enhanced markedly through scientific and technological advances, particularly in computer systems and communications technology. Continuous improvements in the accuracy and reliability of monitoring instrumentation, and in integrated observation networks particularly through the use of remote sensing techniques are enormous. In turn these have supported research on hazard phenomena, simulation modeling and forecasting methods and warning systems.
Dissemination and telecommunication mechanisms must be operational, robust, available every minute of every day, and tailored to the needs of a wide range of different threats and different user communities, tte dissemination of the information must be based on clear protocols and procedures and supported by an adequate telecommunications infrastructure. At the national level, effective dissemination and alert mechanisms are required to ensure timely dissemination of information to authorities and farmers at risk in even the most remote areas of the country. In order to reach all those who need to take action, countries are becoming aware of the need to design warnings for particular groups of stakeholders, such as different language groups, people with disabilities, and tourists.
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