OnFarm Applications Against Risks

On-farm applications to cope with agrometeorological risks and uncertainties cannot be defined objectively without detailed description of all the external and internal driving forces, related events, direct and indirect impacts, consequential effects, available technology and resources, and farmer's implementation ability, governmental supporting system and national infrastructure. Nevertheless, it may be practiced through an ordinary farm management system when combined or linked together with an appropriate early warning system for natural hazards, if available, tte creation of data archives and information bases are essential to decision making as well as research on hazards and warning systems. Components of an early warning system include: observation, detection, monitoring, assessment, forecasting, warning, projection and, valuation.

Common on-farm applications for decision making support in agriculture can be grouped into three categories as follows in a simple manner, ttis grouping can be also applied to decision making support system against agrometeorological risks and uncertainties as a starting prototype, tte three categories are: 1) Production Management System, including yield, quality, and post-harvest; 2) Pest Management System, including insect, disease, and weeds; and 3) Resource Management System including soil, water, air, biome, and infrastructure.

In most cases, production management system will be main target in coping with agrometeorological risks, not only because it is the most susceptible area to direct impact by risks, but also because it can be relatively easily managed by farmers unless resources are limited. On-farm applications in terms of production management can be described in two ways, ttese include: 1) Structural applications such as irrigation, water-harvesting, windbreak, frost protection, artificial climate/weather, etc., and 2) Non-structural applications such as seasonal to inter-annual climate prediction, medium range forecasts and crop insurance.

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