Middleincome farmers

Also here, specific training of the same extension intermediaries in to the point fields of applied services to such middle-income farmers will be a lasting solution.

tte actual needs of these farmers for such services change much more dynamically. ttese needs have therefore to be permanently followed and to be dynamically met. ttis can again partly be done in the training of intermediaries but is even more demanding as to their level and flexibility, tte same applies to the use of improved Agrometeorological Bulletins (Sivakumar 2002). According to the five periods of the diffusion of innovation adoption model of Rogers (1983) (knowledge diffusion period, persuasion period, decision period, using period and affirmation period), it may be argued that during the knowledge diffusion and persuasion periods extension intermediaries, field classes and mass media play a very important role. During the other periods in addition also able villagers' capacities (i.e. social capital) are very important, ttis has to be taken into account in the strategies chosen.

In addition to field classes, mass media and bulletins, other information technology can be introduced or stimulated, with mobile telephones appearing to become an obvious choice, ttis, however, means that establishment and use of agrometeorological services should be adapted to this information medium. It is also at this level that stakeholder-driven funding mechanisms for agricultural innovation maybe part of the solution, ttis is about funding for technology development and dissemination interactively controlled and managed by stakeholders. Heemskerk and Wennink (2006) have indicated that for such innovative funding mechanisms to work, far-reaching institutional changes need to take place, ttis means enhancing client control over priorities and resources, expanding the range and skills of service providers, and making organizational changes in all stakeholder organizations, whether public sector, private sector or farmers' organizations (formal and informal).

A pre-condition is proper understanding of their problems in coping with risks, that is hazards and vulnerability, in the context of the four policy issues of Lassa (2006) dealt with earlier, and clarity/honesty in such policy issues (Wason 2002; Kaimowitz 2005). As to mitigation practices and disaster preparedness, training, media, new communication technologies and social capital are the critical resources for bringing change to rural communities in China at this level. However, unlike other kinds of capital, social capital cannot be inherited or passed on to others. It exists only when mobilized by specific social actors (Ye 2002). ttis includes scientists and technicians (Zheng Dawei et al. 2005; Zhao Caixia et al. 2005). Contingency planning and responses as well as disaster risk mainstreaming should be a mix oflocal government initiatives and private initiatives by these social actors.

Survival Basics

Survival Basics

This is common knowledge that disaster is everywhere. Its in the streets, its inside your campuses, and it can even be found inside your home. The question is not whether we are safe because no one is really THAT secure anymore but whether we can do something to lessen the odds of ever becoming a victim.

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