Effect of extreme cold weather/frost
Long periods of extreme cold weather combined with other meteorological phenomena result in the loss of winter crops, fruit crops and vineyards due to frost injury. Low soil temperature at the depth of plant roots causes frost injury. Such reduction in soil temperature occur with strong frosts, in the absence of snow cover and with deep freezing of the soil. Most frost injury to winter crops takes place in the first half of winter before sufficient snow cover has formed. In the second half of winter, frost injury happens in regions with unstable snow cover. Under low tem peratures basically a plant dries out and the protoplasm (the living part of cells) dies. Damage to the part of a plant does not always result in damage or destruction of the whole plant. A determining factor is the degree of frost injury to a tillering node, if it is heavy the whole plant will perish, tte winter crops most frequently destroyed by frost are those grown on uplands, where snow cover is less and the depth of soil freezing is greater, tte main agrometeorological factor influencing frost damage in winter crops is low soil temperature at the depth of the tillering node. Long (three days or more) and intensive cooling causes complete devastation of the crops.
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