Discussion Conclusions

Coping actions with agrometeorological risks and uncertainties comprise appropriate decision making processes. Various strategic and response options can be taken by farmers as on-farm applications against risks. Site specific farm management systems can be used to prevent and mitigate potential risks, ttose on-farm applications require systematic and consistent observations of hazard-relevant parameters, quality assurance and proper archiving of the data, catalogued observational data sets with capacities to locate and retrieve needed data and sufficient dedicated resources to support these activities.

Advanced ITs such as information network, database, simulation models, tools for GIS, Remote Sensing are invaluable in the implementation of decision makings against risk. In addition, sharing of resources between associated authorities and farming communities is necessary under limited resources.

tte establishment of early warning systems and associated preparedness and response systems in agricultural managements is an important contributor to the progressive prevention and reduction of natural hazards in agricultural production. Emergency Response System (ERS) in agricultural managements can be considered as an on-farm application for decision-making support system (DMSS) against agricultural hazards.

Emergency response system requires scientific knowledge, including improved science and technology for information dissemination, ttey need the creation of data archives and information bases that are essential to decision making and to research on hazards and warning systems.

Data are scarce and there are variations in data quality, tte main challenges include: 1) Establishing and maintaining observing systems and data management systems; 2) Maintaining archives, including quality control and digitization of historical data; 3) Obtaining systematic environmental data for vulnerability analysis; and 4) Securing institutional mandates for collection and analysis of vulnerability data.

Key issues on emergency response system include: 1) Inadequate distribution of monitoring systems for hazards, 2) Inadequate level of operational capabilities, 3) Lack of systems for many. 4) Lack of procedures to share essential data in a timely fashion for the development of modeling and for operational forecasting and warning systems, 5) Inadequate access to information, 6) Insufficient multi-disciplinary, multi-agency coordination and collaboration for improving forecasting tools, and 7) Inadequate communication systems to provide timely, accurate and meaningful forecasting and early warning information down to the level of farming communities ttere is a need for development of standards, protocols and procedures for exchange of data, bulletins, alerts, etc. for some of the hazards. Protocols are critical, particularly when the lead time is short, tte use of the new information and communication technologies, particularly the Internet, in disseminating warnings is a useful advance for expanding the coverage and reducing time lags in warning dissemination.

An inevitable use of advanced ICTs such as information network, database, simulation models, tools for GIS, RS for agrometeorology should be made in its implementation. In conclusion, WAMIS grid portal, as an example of IT sharing infrastructure will be a potential solution in improving resource sharing among CAgM member countries by allowing them to make better use of remotely located computer resources for early warning and risk management by providing both NWP outputs and Agricultural model outputs, especially when it provides interactive forecast-based agrometeorological services via simple Internet access.

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