tte efficient management and planning of agricultural activities requires policies and tools that allow communities to face agro-meteorological risks and uncertainties (WMO 2006). Among these we can consider the following:
• Mitigation of the impacts of agro-meteorological risks and uncertainties requires multi-sectorial and multi-disciplinary actions.
• Defining adequate strategies for land use based on forecasted risks, selection of varieties, and types of crops or change the sowing dates to reduce crop loss.
• Improve irrigation techniques and most efficient use of water, likewise, to manage water more efficiently and to prevent flooding and soil erosion.
• Adopt appropriate soil management systems to minimize the erosion during both rainy and dry events.
• Improve prairie management and adjust livestock numbers on the grazing lands according to the provisions of climate risks.
• Restoring degraded ecosystems.
• Promote the creation of early warning systems of adverse agro-meteorological phenomena
• Carry out evaluations and agro-climate zoning to determine the most favorable conditions for agriculture as well as extreme conditions that are anomalous and recommend appropriate measures to control them.
Several of these actions can be improved by means of an early warning system for adverse climate phenomena to reduce uncertainties through a better understanding of the dimensions of risk. On the other hand, all the information about the generation and evolution of climate phenomena generated daily by different institutions should be used. At present several institutions provide forecasting systems for El Niño events which include NCEP of the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, USA; MM5 from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, USA etc.
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