Coping Strategieswith Agrometeorological Risksand Uncertainties for Drought Examples in Brasil

O. Brunini, Y. M. T. daAnunciagao, L. T.G. Fortes, P. L. Abramides, G. C. Blain, A. P. C. Brunini, J. P. de Carvalho

17.1 Introduction 281

17.2 Methodologies to Assess Precipitation Anomaly and Drought 286

17.2.1 Meteorologicallndices 286

17.2.2 Agrometeorologicallndices 290

17.3 Results and Analysis 296

17.3.1 MeteorologicalAspectsofDroughtMonitoringandPrediction . .296

17.3.2 AgrometeorologicalAspects ofDrought 304

17.3.3 Drought Monitoring and Mitigation Center 306

17.3.4 ClimaticRiskZoning 309

17.4 Conclusions 313

References 313

18 Coping Strategies with Desertification in China

Wang Shili, Ma Yuping, HouQiong, Wang Yinshun

18.1 Introduction 317

18.2 StatusofDesertificationinChina 318

18.2.1 Status of Desertified Land 318

18.2.2 Status ofland most vulnerable to sand encroachment 319

18.2.3 Dynamic Changes of Desertification 319

18.3 Development and Causes of Desertification in North China 319

18.3.1 Development and Cause Analysis 319

18.3.2 Possible influence of climate change on desertification 321

18.4 Desertification Monitoring in China 321

18.4.1 Indicatorsystemfordesertificationmonitoringandevaluation . .321

18.4.2 Desertification monitoring in China 322

18.5 China's Key Forestry Programs on Combating Desertification 324

18.5.1 Program for converting cropland to forest/shrubbery 324

18.5.2 Programme of Combating desertification in the wind sand sources areas affecting Beijing and Tianjin city 325

18.5.3 ttree-North Shelterbelt Programme and Shelterbelt Programme in upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River 326

18.6 Practical Strategies and Countermeasures to Combat Desertification. . . 326

18.6.1 Stabilizingsandstechniquessystem 327

18.6.2 Shelterbelt techniques system 329

18.6.3 Typical models in combating desertification in China 330

18.7 Services for combating desertificationin Chinese Meteorological Offices. . 334

18.7.1 Research on desertification development and combating in terms of meteorological conditions 334

18.7.2 Monitoring and assessing services to combating desertification of grassland 336

18.7.3 Monitoring and predicting of dust storms in China 338

18.8 Conclusions and Discussion 339

Acknowledgements 340

References 340

19 Coping strategies with agrometeorological risksand uncertainties for water erosion, runoff and soil loss

19.1 Introduction 343

19.2 Agrometeorologicalcopingstrategies 344

19.3 Soil Management Strategies 346

19.3.1 OrganicMatter 346

19.3.2 Tillage Practices 346

19.3.3 CropManagementStrategies 349

19.3.4 Mechanical Control Strategies 350

19.4 Conclusions 351

References 352

Disaster Survival Guides Collection

Disaster Survival Guides Collection

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