tte risk farmers take in cultivating crops and uncertainties that follow due to natural disasters is always present. Preparing for uncertainties has to always be part of the management strategies even in the case of natural disasters. Unfortunately such preparations are not feasibly in most small farmers in developing countries. In more advanced agricultural systems, country level policies are established to mitigate the impact of natural disasters and provide assistance to farmers, tte problems of soil erosion and decline in soil quality are confounded by high demographic pressure, low per capita arable land area, resource-poor farmers who cannot afford to invest in soil erosion control measures, tte grain production is directly linked with soil quality and productivity which are declining along with the per capita arable land area, especially in densely populated countries of Asia and Africa. Soil erosion and erosion-induced decline in productivity in these regions are an increasing problem.
tte discussions presented here are primarily on methods to reduce the risks and uncertainties in crop production through intervention management techniques for the farming systems to help minimize soil erosion and loss of top soil to ex cessive water runoff, tte entire farming systems should be considered for developing a comprehensive solution in reduction of soil erosion, soil loss and runoff, ttis system should include the soil management practices such as tillage, the crops cultivated, sequence of cropping with cover crops planted where possible, the use of crop residue, and finally development of mechanical barriers to slow down the runoff over sloping landscapes, tte specific strategy that is suitable for a particular site depends on many factors such as landscape characteristics, soil properties, rainfall patterns and intensity, adaptability of soil and crop management practices in the region. Developing a proper combination of these strategies based on a good assessment of the problem is critical for a successful implementation of coping risks and uncertainties in crop production. Finally, we need further research to develop and refine new methods for application in Asia and Africa that account for the soils, crops and resources available for these areas.
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