Canada

Agriculture remains a significant export commodity for Canada's economy. Furthermore, it is a mainstay of several regional economies. And, like in many parts of the world, weather and climate play an important role in Canadian agriculture. In a recent research on adaptation in Canadian agriculture to climate change and variability however, it was ascertained that the adaptive behaviour of Canadian farmers is prompted by uncertain variations from year to year, like for instance, rainfall intensity and duration, high temperatures and intensity of droughty conditions at critical periods, etc. (Bryant et al. 2000).

It is also noted, that recent research in farm-level adaptation in Canadian agriculture has identified the importance of the multiple sources of stress faced by farmers. It is these powerful forces that explain changes in cropping patterns involving crop substitution, new crops and new areas. Additionally, even though Canadian farmers may not explicitly acknowledge climate and weather conditions as an important element of their risk management strategy, the producers employ adaptation strategies to lessen the risk of negative impacts, ttese include crop and enterprise diversification and altering timing of planting in addition to the adoption of new technologies, such as improved land and water resource management, including changing the intensification of production to address the changing duration of growing seasons and associated changes in temperature and moisture, changing the location of crop production, using fallow and tillage practices, the use of irrigation systems, alterations to livestock management and those that are provided by external sources, like the use of seasonal climate forecasts and information, crop insurances and other income stabilization programs (C-CIARN 2004).

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