C

CAgM 200

camellones 162

carbohydrate 434

carbon dioxide 434

CCD, see cold cloud duration

CCIS, see comprehensive crop insurance scheme cereal production 8 Chacras hundidas 148 change rates 238 chinampa 438 CIIAGRO 291 climate

- anomalies 1,11

- anthropogenicchange 117

- Australia 105

- - coping strategies 173

- - effects on desertification 335

- - impactonagriculture 12

- data system 65, 439

- erosivity 344

- extreme events 108

- forecast 44, 214

- information 45, 169, 184, 433

- inter-annualvariability 113

- modelling 2, 18

- New Zealand 106

- prediction 456

- prognosis 303

- - evaluation 310

- - South America 81

- Southern hemisphere 103

- Southwest Pacific 99

- stress 39

- user-focused information 1

- variability 16, 54, 173, 421

- - South America 72 clubroot of Brassica spp. 270 CMI, see crop moisture index co2

- concentration 114

- gas emission 14 cold

- cloud duration (CCD) 472

- injury 86

- waves 84

combating desertification 339

- of grassland 336

common agricultural policy (CAP) 122 communication

- network 441

comprehensive crop insurance scheme

(CCIS) 95 conservation

- tillage (CT) 41, 120, 347 contingencyplanning 53, 58, 181, 182, 195,

413, 426 contour

- tillage 347

- trenching 256 conventional tillage 346 converting cropland to forest 324 coping strategies 53, 169, 216, 276, 379, 477 corn production 125

cost-benefit

- analyses 2

- ratio 185

CPC MORPHing technique (CMORPH) 133

- analysis 138

- data 138 crop

- agrometeorological system 310

- cycles 478

- development 293

- disease 267,268

- diversification 41,210,211,226,481

- - efficientwateruse 251

- évapotranspiration 308

- globalassessmentmethods 130

- heat resistance 121

- horticultural 90

- hygiene 268

- improvement 212

- - land-typediversification 213

- - developing countries 373

- - indevelopedcountries 381

- - traditional 379

- irrigateddry(ID) 251

- losses 21

- management 152, 158

- - planning systems 426

- - strategies 349

- modelling 152

- moisture index (CMI) 293

- monitoring 160

- phenology 450

- predictions 114

- protection 469

- - againstwind 92

- resources 152

- revenue insurance 17

- simulation models 424

- stress conditions 64

- water requirement index (CWRI) 309

- water stress index (CWS) 295,296

- yield

- - distributions 381

- - insurance 17 cropland

- converting to forest shrub land 332

- shelterbelt network 330 cropping

- pattern 210

- rice-basedsystems 228

- system

- - direct-seededrice(DSR) 215

- - raisedbed 215 CROPWAT 468 crossvalidationcalculation 241 cultivars 157

cumulative precipitation 136 CWRI, see water requirement index CWS, see crop water stress index cyclone 90, 104, 371

- earlywarnings 56

- forecasting 445

- South Pacific 102, 107

Daily Fire Weather Index map 365 daily rainfall 10 - probability 3

database management system (DBMS) 197, 443

decadal-to-interdecadal variability 103 decision(-making) support system (D(M)SS) 194,196,462,484 decision-making process 192, 206

- supportive tools 271 deficit irrigation 147 deforestation 57, 73, 76 DEMETERproject 115 denitrification 94 desertification

- cause analysis 319

- China 317

- combating 334

- degree 318

- development 319

- dynamic changes 319

- influence of climate change 321

- types 318

DIR, see drought impact reporter direct seeding 229, 230 direct-seeded rice (DSR) 215, 482 disaster

- mitigation 77,450

- preparedness 181, 182

- - mainstreaming 54

- - management 396

- standardized data collection 54

- to agriculture (Vietnam) 185 Disaster Prevention in the Anden

Community (PREDECAN) 78 diversification 210,227 DMSS, see decision-making support system drainage technology 147 drip-irrigation system 146 drought 11,61,93,145,183

- agrometeorological aspects 304

- alert system 414

- alleviating 88

- assessment 414

- assistance programs 21

- contingencyplanning 428

- crop losses 21

- earlywarning 26

- examples in Brazil 281

- globalfinancialimpact 118

- hazard 22

- human-induced 26

- hydrological 25,286

- incidence reports 34

- index insurance 49

- information delivery 29

- mitigation 419

- modelling systems 424

- monitoring 26,444

- - monitoring and mitigation center 306,

- planning 414

- policy 421

- preparation plans 413

- preparedness 423

- research 422

- social vulnerability 22

- socioeconomic 25

- South America 74

drought-specific decision support system 29 dry

- farming meteorology 447

- spells

- - off-season 43 dryness index 13 dry-seeding 229 dust storm 89

- in China 338

earlywarning system (EWS) 63, 78, 153, 192, 194, 219, 269, 462, 471, 486

- wildland fire 355,357

- - development 363

- - sustainability 362 ECB, see European corn borer economic empowerment 47 efficientmarketfunction 129 El Niño

- - forecasting systems 79

- period 281

- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 71, 99, 105, 477

elevators enterprise 128 emergency response system (ERS) 194, 207, 484

EMS, see environmental management system ENSO, see El Nino Southern Oscillation enterprisediversification 16,217

environmental

- degradation 193,473

- management system (EMS) 271 EPIC model 344

ERS, see emergency response system ETR/ETM ratio 310 European corn borer (ECB) 161 évapotranspiration 150,292 experimental observation 272 extreme

- temperature 56, 60, 74

- weather events 1

fallow crop 349 farming

- coping strategies 39, 41

- diversification 224

- ecological systems 155

- management systems 191

- technologies 142

- - optimization strategies 144

- waste 224

EDRS, see fire danger rating system fermentation 346 fertilizer 157,218 financial

- leverage 17

- danger 104,355

- fighting 62

- management 361, 364

- risk 108 fireproofbelt 331 flood 93,435

- frequencies 259

- hazards 55

- irrigation 148

- meteorological offices 445

- resistant construction techniques 55

- South America 73 floodplain 59 fogformation 88 food

- production 113

- risk zones 472

- security 41,48,343,480 forage production 36 forecast

- accuracy 63

- anomalies 241

- improvement 46

- of duststorm 339

- precipitation 240

- seasonal 242

- submodel 337 forefrontstoppingsandsbelt 331 forest

- ecosystem 452

- fire 355 frost

- damage 163

- injury to winter crop 85

- protection 86 fuel 62,62 fungal disease 275 fungicide 155,268,269,273

Galeriasfiltrantes 148

gamma probability density function

(GPDF) 287 GCM(globalclimatemodel) 12 geographic information system (GIS) 21, 81, 218, 440, 470

- information 153

- technology 356 geological hazard 193 GHG emission 453

GIEWS, see global information and early warning system 472 GIS, see geographic information system global

- circulation model (GCM) 12,237,480

- climate change 265

- crop reinsurance markets 385

- earth observation system of systems

(GEOSS) 357

- foodandfibersystem 125

- food security 343

- information and early warning system 427

- multi-hazardearlywarningsystem

(GEWS) 357

- positioning system (GPS) 218,440,462

- reinsurer 367

- soybean production 134

- supplyestimation 127

- vegetation fire 355

- - increaseddrougthrisk 119 government risk management program 385 GPS, see global positioning system greenhouse gas emission 12

grid portal 202

groundnut production in India 184 groundwater

- exploitation 245,248

- reserves 143

- utilization 250 guaranteedprice 17

hailstorm 89, 163 hazardwarning 197 hazard-relevant parameter 197 heat wave 90 heat-resistantcrop 121 herbicide 230 high-input farming 164 high-intensity rainfall 59, 104 high-yielding variety (HYV) 220, 224 horticulture 269

host-agent-environment disease triangle 275 human/personal risk 7, 209 human-induced drought 26 humidity 434

- index 283 hydro-illogical cycle 413 hydrological

- cycle 259

- drought 25

hydrometeorological hazard 193 HYV, see high-yielding variety impact

- assessmentmethodology 31

- reduction 58 in situ

- coping strategies 452

- moisture conversation 247

- water conservation 247, 250 income

- levels

- risk 126 index

- insurance 372,388,399

- - policyholder 388

- reinsurance

- - disaster option for CAT risk 393

- setting 406 index-based

- insurance products 407

- weather insurance 48

indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) 214,

437 information

- channels 176, 178

- communication 175

- management technique 323

- technology 169,484 INFOSECA 291 initial

- availablesoilwater(ISAW) 151

- spread index (ISI) 363 innovative technology 180 institutional risk 7, 127, 209

insurance 62

- contract 48

- weather-based 48

integrated pest management (IPM) 265 intensificationofproduction 213 intercropping 212

Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) 99 inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) 72 intra-season

- rainfall distribution 43 irrigated dry (ID) crops 251 irrigation 21, 47, 61, 245, 466

- fertilizer 261

- management 120,426

- Mediterranean region 143

- techniques 146

joint agricultural weather facility (IAWF) 443

kanchas 162

LaNina 99,282 land

- fire 355

- topography 214

LEISA, see low external inputs sustainable agriculture livestock

- feeder 128

- production 36 local

- fire climate 364

- knowledge 214 loss insurance 372

low external inputs sustainable agriculture

(LEISA) 144 low-input

- agriculture 218

- farming 164, 482

macro-economic policy 174 major irrigation 249 Marcov chain model 65 market

- failure 395

- information 176, 178, 179

- limitation 397

- risk 7,209 MARS project 439 MASIPAG 222,224 mass media 177 maximum

- annualwindgust 11,14

- temperature 15

- - tolerance 60 meteorological

- index 286

- - decile method 288

- - quantilemethod 289

- information services 337

- satellite 338

- services 78 microclimate 173,214

- management 449

- of crop stands 162 micro-environment diversification 220 microinsurance 373,374 micro-irrigation technique 258 minimum tillage (MT) 41, 150, 160, 348 minor irrigation 249

mitigation practices 53, 181, 182 models for soil erosion 464 moisture in situ conversation 247 monitoring

- network 78

- system 80

- techniques 323 monocropping 220,245

monsoon

- circulation 238

- depression 90 mountain ecosystem 76

MPCI, see multi-peril crop insurance mulch tillage 348 mulching 350

multi-peril crop insurance (MPCI) 372 Munich Re 367 MySQL database 308

NatCatService 367

national weather service (NWS) 34

natural

- disaster, see also disaster 368 97, 371,

- - advance planning 451

- - coping strategies 483

- - databases 367

- - earlywarning 451

- - on environment 437

- - on rangeland 436

- - South America 71

- resources 24

NDVI, see normalized difference vegetation index needassessment 172,174 netpresent value (NPV) 232 nitrogen 155, 158, 162

normalized difference vegetation index

(NDVI) 472 North American Drought Monitor (NADM) 29

oasis agroecosystem 162 ocean-atmosphere phenomenon 99 officialwarningmessage 198 off-season dry spells (ODS) 43 on-farm application 191 over-exploitation of irrigated water 245 oxygen 62

Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) 27,

31,283, 285,257,304 pastoral farming 107 PCA, see principal component analysis PDF, see probability distribution function PDSI, see Palmer Drought Severity Index peril identification 406 personal/human risk 7, 209 pest

- control techniques 160

- cycle 276

- management risks 481 pest-crop-climate relationship 161 pesticide 157, 158, 218, 222, 261, 266, 481 Philippine experience 220

PI, see production insurance plant

- disease 270

- protoplasm 86 Plasmodiaphora brassicae 270 Poikilothermie insects 160 Populus enphratica 330 PostgreSQL database 468 poverty

- alleviation 183

- reduction policies 396

- trap 377,401,479 prairie ecosystem 76 precipitation 116

- anomalies 100

- deficiency 24 precisionfarming 162,164,218 pre-crop disease control 265 premium subsidies 397 preparedness strategies 174 price risk 7, 126

principal component analysis (PCA) 238 probabilitydistributionfunction (PDF) 115

production

- insurance (PI) 383

- management system 191

Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici 267 pumping devices 147

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