Agrometeorological Riskand Coping Strategies Perspective from Indian Subcontinent

N. Chattopadhyay, B. Lai

6.1 Introduction 83

6.2 Extreme weather events and its impacts on Indian agriculture 84

6.2.1 Cold wave 84

6.2.2 Drought 86

6.2.4 ttunderstorm.HailstormandDuststorm 88

6.2.5 Heatwaves 89

6.2.6 Tropical Cyclones 90

6.2.7 Floods 93

6.3 Crop Insurance 94

6.4 Strategiesadoptedinareaswithhighweatherrisk 95

6.5 Conclusions 97

References 97

7 Challenges to coping strategies in Agrometeorology: The Southwest Pacific

James Salinger

7.1 Introduction 99

7.2 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 99

7.3 Decadal Variability 103

7.4 Regional Warming 103

7.5 Challenges to Agriculture and Forestry 105

7.5.1 ENSO 105

7.5.2 Tropical Cyclones 107

7.5.3 RegionalWarming 107

7.6 Discussion and Conclusions 108

References 110

8 Challenges to agrometeorological risk management - regional perspectives: Europe

Lucka Kajfez Bogataj, Andreja Susnik

8.1 Introduction 113

8.2 Seasonal weather forecasts for crop yield modeling in Europe 114

8.3 Climate change as a challenge to agrometeorological risk managementin Europe 115

8.3.1 tte use of different high resolution climate models in Europe . . 115

8.3.2 Expected impacts of climate change in Europe during thiscentury 117

8.3.3 Increasing drought Risk with Global Warming in Europe 119

8.3.4 Options for future adaptation strategies 120

8.3.5 European agrometeorological research needs 121

8.4. Conclusions 122

References 123

9 Methods of Evaluating Agrometeorological Risks and Uncertainties for Estimating Global Agricultural Supplyand Demand

Keith Menzie

9.1 Introduction 125

9.2 SourcesofRisk 125

9.3 Risk, Uncertainty, and the Agricultural Marketing System 127

9.4 Information - the Key to Efficient Market Function 129

9.5 Global Crop Assessment Methods and Risk Reduction -

Tools and Analysis 130

9.6 Global Crop Assessment Methods and Risk Reduction -

the Case ofBrazilian Soybeans 136

9.7 Conclusions 139

References 140

10 Weather and climate and optimization offarm technologies at different input levels

JosefEitzinger, Angel Utset, Miroslav Trnka, Zdenek Zalud, Mikhail Nikolaev, Igor Uskov

10.1 Introduction 141

10.2 Strategies for optimizing farm technologiesin various agricultural systems 144

10.2.1 Optimization of farm technologies and water resources 145

10.2.2 Optimization of farm technologies and soil resources 149

10.2.3 Optimizationoffarmtechnologiesandcropresources 152

10.2.4 Optimization of farm technologies and the microclimate of crop stands 162

10.3 Conclusions 164

Acknowledgement 165

References 165

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