Optimization offarm technologies and the microclimate ofcrop stands

Changes in climate variability and climate can affect microclimatic conditions is many ways (Sivakumar et al. 2005). Modifications to the microclimate of crop stands were used in ancient cultures such as the Incas in the Peruvian highlands (Vogl 1990). ttese ancient camellones and qochas are a combination of water-filled canals and plots designed to improve the microclimate (especially to decrease nocturnal cooling) and water availability of crops and are still in occasional use. Another...

Coping Strategies with Agrometeorological Risks and Uncertainties for Drought Examples in Brasil

T. da Anuncia ao, L. T.G. Fortes, P. L. Abramides, G. C. Blain, A. P. C. Brunini, J. P. de Carvalho tte 1997-1998 El-Ni o caused an extreme drought in the northeastern region with considerable losses for agriculture, livestock, water resources and society. Regionally, the impact of these anomalies can be striking. In the southeastern region, for example, in the State of S o Paulo in the El Ni o period, the effects caused by this phenomenon were quite different with above...

Farmers coping strategies

Farmers in Africa have been subjected to persistent unfavorable climatic conditions. tte level of assets and wealth determine how much adjustments one can make to sustain agricultural production. In Zambia, a recent World Bank Survey reported an increase in poverty levels in the rural areas from 70 in 1994 to 90 in 1995 (Balat and Porto 2005). ttese statistics reinforce the fact that farmers have to find coping strategies to survive. At the institutional level, ineffective extension and...

Options for future adaptation strategies

Strategies to adapt to climate change should not be seen as individual remedies since agriculture will compete for water allocation with other sectors affected by climate change. Short term adjustments should aim at optimising production without introducing major system changes, but for long-term adaptations heavier structural changes will take place to alleviate the adverse effects of climate change. Suggested adjustments include changes in planting strategies and the use of more appropriate...

Operational Agrometeorological Services to Cope with Risks and Uncertainties of Natural Disasters

National Weather Service (NWS) was created in 1870 and was officially transferred to the Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1891 and then to the Department of Commerce (DOC) on June 30,1940. As early as 1941, operational agrometeorological services were provided for orchardists under DOC and USDA weather, climate, and agricultural activities, tte farmers were advised on conditions suitable for spray on fruit trees. Pioneering research at USDA resulted in the publication of Atlas of...

Change in cultural practices or improved farming practices

Ttis coping measure consists of changes in farming practices to increase adaptive capacity through improved soil, crop and environmental quality. It includes adjustments in agricultural inputs such as the use of hybrids, flexible calendar of farming activities such as changes in timing of operations to address changes in temperature moisture conditions, integrating crops with trees in a given production area to halt decline of land productivity and the use of farming systems such as organic and...

Strategiesto Improvethe Agrometeorological Services to Cope with Risks and Uncertainties

Sivakumar et al. (1998 and 2000) emphasized that the agrometeorological information plays a valuable part not only in making daily and seasonal farm management decisions but also in the management of disasters, risks, and uncertainties. Earlier, Das (1999) expressed that it may not be possible to prevent the occurrence of natural disasters, but agreed with the observations of Sivakumar et al. (2004) that the STATE ANDHRA PRADESH CROP PADDY-1 VERIETY IET-1444,ILR-1396,ILR-2508 SOIL SANDY LOAM,...

Risk management systems and tools

Risk management tools suitable for drought management are now becoming more common world-wide, ttese tools appear to have high benefit at the broader industry level where the additional aspect of use of seasonal climate forecasting can have considerable benefit. We would argue that use of integrated agricultural management, crop simulation models, and climate forecast systems offers the highest ben efit. ttis is especially the case when applied at the whole farming system scale and across...

References

Brenner E (1997) Reducing the impact of natural disasters Governors' advisors talk about mitigation. Council of Governors' Policy Advisors, Washington DC Gillette HP (1950) A creeping drought under way. Water and Sewage Works, March, pp 104105 Kent RC (1987) Anatomy of disaster relief the international network in action. Pinter Publishers, New York and London National Drought Policy Commission (2000) Preparing for drought in the 21st century. Washington DC Oweis T (2005) e role of water...

The Okanagan Valley Canada

Tte Okanagan Valley is located in the southern interior of British Columbia. It is long and narrow with an area of 8,200 km2, and is flanked by mountain ranges. Wine is its second highest grossing commodity. Producers know that climate-related conditions are important for wine-growing operations. In good years, favorable conditions include a hot and dry summer with a long growing season and early spring. In bad years, the growing season experience lower temperatures and greater rainfall than...

The basis of drought contingency planning

Drought planning and water crisis management needs to be proactive, is is largely because overall policy, legislation, and specific mitigation strategies should be in place before a drought or water crisis affects the use of the country's water resources. Bruins (2001) provided the basic elements involved in the development of proactive drought contingency planning and their respective relationships, ese basic elements (Figure 24.1) involve drought risk analysis, drought impact assessment, and...

Drought Types and Vulnerability

All types of drought originate from a deficiency of precipitation (Wilhite and Glantz 1985). When this deficiency spans an extended period of time (i.e., meteorological drought), its existence is defined initially in terms of these natural characteristics. However, the other common drought types (i.e., agricultural, hydro-logical, and socioeconomic) place greater emphasis on human or social aspects of drought, highlighting the interaction or interplay between the natural characteristics of the...

Water Management Water Use in Rainfed Regions of India1

Crop Management Rainfed

YS Ramakrishna3, GGSN Rao, VUM Rao, AVMS Rao and KV Rao2 Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad Large investments of about Rs.800 billion since Independence has gone into development of surface irrigation projects and the gross irrigated area increased from 22.56 m ha to 75.14 m ha by 2000-01 in India. In spite of large-scale developments in irrigation sector, the agricultural production remains static at 212 mt, a cause of great concern, which is mainly attributed to the...

Optimization offarm technologies and water resources

It is well known that on a global scale water is probably the most limited resource for agricultural production and directly sensitive to climate variability. Water resources can therefore vary strongly from year to year and within a single year. Extreme precipitation events and floods can be as devastating as droughts (Rosenzweig et al. 2002 Chang 2002), and these extremes could increase under climate change, depending on the region. Extreme precipitation can further lead to nitrogen leaching...

Risk Characterization

As shown in Figure 1.3, risk characterization is an important step in the overall process of risk management, ttis section describes the methodology and pro- Fig. 1.5. Likelihood that soybean rust will reach a severity of over 20 percent by late June if found in late May (from Del Ponte and Yang 2006). Fig. 1.5. Likelihood that soybean rust will reach a severity of over 20 percent by late June if found in late May (from Del Ponte and Yang 2006). Fig. 1.6. Percent decrease in total cereal...

Risk Management in Agrometeorology

To cope with agrometeorological risk and uncertainties effectively, they should be observed, detected, monitored, assessed, forecasted, warned by relevant authorities at national or local levels and then delivered to a farmer's site in a timely manner and with certain level of reliability. It should be based on systematic framework provided by government's risk management authorities including NMHS of each country for better risk management. Agricultural sectors or authorities also should...

Drought

Droughts have an immediate effect on the recharge of soil moisture resulting in reductions of stream flow, reservoir levels and irrigation potential and even the availability of drinking water from wells, tte acreage planted to food crops is also affected by land quality, tte cultivation of lands subject to a high degree of rainfall variability makes them extremely susceptible to wind erosion (and desertification) during prolonged drought episodes, as the bare soil lacks the dense vegetative...

Extreme Weatherand Climate Eventsand Farming Risks

1.2.1 Step A - Risk 1.2.2 Step B - Risk Characterization and Evaluation 4 1.2.3 Step C - Risk 1.2.4 Step D - Monitoring and 1.3 Farming 1.4 Risk 1.4.1 Weather 1.6 Risk 2 Preparednessand Coping Strategies for Agricultural Drought Risk Management Recent Progressand Trends 2.2 Agricultural Drought Risk Management Understanding the Hazard and Societal 2.4 Drought Understanding Vulnerability 23 2.6 Decision-Support Tools for Drought Risk Management 26 2.6.1 U.S. Drought Monitor 26 2.6.3 tte Drought...