Sensitivity Analyses

We use the SNTHERM snowpack energy and mass balance model of Jordan (1991) to examine the sensitivity of shortwave radiation, latent and sensible heat fluxes and total surface energy balance to four different constant values of a and to the variable a parameterization. SNTHERM is a one-dimensional finite difference model with over 20 vertical computational snow layers that is driven by meteorologic data. Changes in albedo can be implemented in the code in a straightforward way. SNTHERM uses a ther-modynamic growth function to calculate changes in gram size within each snow layer. For dry snow, the grain growth rate is a function of the mass vapor flux that is determined in large part by snow temperature and temperature gradient (Colbeck, 1979). For wet snow, grain growth is a function of the liquid water content (Colbeck, 1982).

The total energy flux for a snowcover, is expressed as:

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