Seasonal and decadal prediction of crop productivity requires simulation of climate and its impact on crops ahead of time. Numerical models can provide such forecasts by using the output from a climate model as input to a crop simulation model. This modeling approach presents a number of challenges that will affect the skill of prediction of the crop forecast. Perhaps the most important of these is: at what scale (both spatial and temporal) should information pass between climate and crop models? This chapter examines this question and other issues concerned with the development of a combined crop and climate forecasting system.
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