Institutional Proclivity and Evolution

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The institutional proclivity is referred in the context of readiness of the institutions to absorb the new technology available through recent scientific research. The readiness to absorb the forecast technology and further development depends on past experiences of climate related impacts and risk management. Institutions, which pass through a risk management mandate in different context, readily accept and incorporate another emerging risk management strategy. Changes in institutional policies and mandates towards new emerging risks and related motivating factors and needs also influence the proclivity. For example, the Directorate of Crop Protection in Indonesia at the national level was created in 1972 with a mandate to monitor and control pest problems in agriculture. In mid-1980s, there was a considerable shift in mandate; focus on monitoring of flood and drought as a secondary function. In early and mid-1990s, introduction of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices and pest resistant varieties led to significant reduction of pest menace. The IPM schools played a significant role at district level to ensure the lateral seepage of the IPM technology across the villages. After El Niño 1997, the impacts of climate variability on crop production became a major concern.

The institutional set up, which was primarily evolved to monitor pests, provided an opportunity to internalize climate risk management activities within the existing mandate. Though El Niño during 1991 was prominent in terms of rice area affected (Fig. 6.1), institutional transformation had taken place only after 1997 due to availability of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based prediction technology.

Recognizing the importance of pro-active climate risk management the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) has included climate risk management within Pest Analysis and Disaster Division under Directorate of Food Crops Protection from 2001. Later in 2005, a separate division named the Climate Analysis and Mitigation was formed (ADPC 2006). Initially, the division is entrusted with collection, collation, analysis of long-term climate data and real time drought monitoring. At the district level, the IPM schools were converted into Climate Field Schools (CFS) to match the emerging needs. The farmer field school facilitates practical and field-based learning.

Similarly, Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics (BMG) of Indonesia was evolved to provide forecast information for transport sector like shipping and civil aviation. In late 1970s, demand for forecast for natural disaster risk management was realized. In 1990s, a series of El Niño impacts diverted attention of climate scientists to generate reliable seasonal forecasts. Availability of usable El Niño forecasts was recognized after 1997 and subsequently there was a growing interest in BMG to address the needs of agriculture and water resource sectors at local level. An inter-agency scientific forum comprising of scientists from BMG, National Agency on Aviation and Space (LAPAN) and Research and Development Department of MoA was initiated. District level science and policy forum was formed to foster development of localized forecasts and to integrate climate risk management in district policy. Recognizing the

Fig. 6.1. Rice area affected by climate risks in Indonesia from 1988 to 2002

Fig. 6.1. Rice area affected by climate risks in Indonesia from 1988 to 2002

institutional changes in agriculture and needs at district level, BMG has readily initiated a replication process in several districts of the country based on the vulnerability and climate predictability.

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