FIGURE 4.24. In cumulus convection, buoyant air parcels ascend along a moist adiabat but repeatedly mix with ambient fluid, reducing their buoyancy. Cumulus top is expected to occur at the level at which the wet adiabat first runs parallel to the environmental curve, as shown in the inset at top right of figure.

FIGURE 4.25. The pattern of flow relative to a cumulonimbus storm moving along with a middle-level wind. Ahead of the storm, air is sucked in (p-), ascends, and is expelled in the anvil. Upper-middle level air approaches the storm from behind and is brought down to the ground (p+). The ''squall front'' is a stagnation point relative to the storm which moves roughly at the speed of the storm. Heavy rain is represented by the vertical dotted lines in the updraught. Modified from Green (1999).

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