Lmlm

wffx sao aey< ÑÍM cap-« wk smk joor «c* «o'K ÏM sook

FIGURE 5.8. The zonally averaged potential temperature in (top) the annual mean, averaged over (middle) December, January, and February (DJF), and (bottom) June, July, and August (JJA).

Zonal-Average Moist Potential Temperature (K)

Latitude

Latitude

240 K 260 K 260"K 300 K 320 K 3« K 3fi0'K 300 K 400 K 420 K 440"K 480 K 480 K S00 K

FIGURE 5.9. The zonal average, annual mean equivalent potential temperature, 6e, Eq. 4-30.

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FIGURE 5.10. The observed, longitudinally averaged temperature distribution (T) at northern summer solstice from the surface to a height of 100 km (after Houghton, 1986). Altitudes at which the vertical T gradient vanishes are marked by the dotted lines and correspond to the demarcations shown on the T(z) profile in Fig. 3.1. The -60°C isopleth is thick. Note the vertical scale is in km compared to Fig. 5.7, which is in pressure. To convert between them, use Eq. 3-8.

equator

Summer Hemisphere Winter Hemisphere

FIGURE 5.10. The observed, longitudinally averaged temperature distribution (T) at northern summer solstice from the surface to a height of 100 km (after Houghton, 1986). Altitudes at which the vertical T gradient vanishes are marked by the dotted lines and correspond to the demarcations shown on the T(z) profile in Fig. 3.1. The -60°C isopleth is thick. Note the vertical scale is in km compared to Fig. 5.7, which is in pressure. To convert between them, use Eq. 3-8.

compared to the global average of about 30%; cf. Fig. 2.5 and Table 2.2). Thus the solar radiation absorbed at the surface is substantially lower at the poles than in the tropics, even in summer.

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