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Jule Gregory Charney (1917—1981), American meteorologist and MIT Professor. He made wideranging contributions to the modern mathematical theory of atmospheric and oceanic dynamics, including the theory of large-scale waves, and of baroclinic instability. He was also one of the pioneers of numerical weather prediction, producing the first computer forecast in 1950.

that two air parcels are exchanged adiabati-cally. Suppose first that we exchange parcel 1, with 9 = 91, with a second parcel with 9 = 92 > 9i, vertically along path A. It is clear that the final potential energy will be greater than the initial value because the parcel moving upward is colder than the parcel it replaces. This is just the problem considered in our study of stability conditions for dry convection in Section 4.3. If parcels are exchanged along a horizontal path or along a path in a surface of constant 9 (dotted lines in the figure), there will be no change in potential energy. But consider exchanging parcels along path B in Fig. 8.11, which has a slope between that of the 9 surface and the horizontal. The parcel moving upward is now warmer than the parcel moving downward, and so potential energy has been reduced by the parcel rearrangement. In other words the center of gravity of the fluid is lowered. In the process, a lateral transport of heat is achieved from warm to cold. It is this release of APE that powers the eddying motion. As discussed in Section 8.3.3, fluid parcels are exchanged in this wedge of instability as they oscillate from side to side, as sketched in Fig. 8.8.

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