In the convection experiment shown in Fig. 4.7, the heating pad supplied energy at around H = 4000 Wm-2. If the convection penetrates over a vertical scale Iz = 0.2 m, then Eq. 4-10 implies IT ~ 0.1 K if a = 2 x 10-4 K-1 and cp = 4000 J kg-1 K-1. Eq. 4-9 then implies a parcel speed of ~ 0.5cms-1. This is not atypical of what is observed in the laboratory experiment.

Thus convection transfers heat vertically away from the pad. Even though the convection layer is very well mixed, with small temperature fluctuations (as can be seen in the T(t) observations in Fig. 4.8) the motions are sufficiently vigorous to accomplish the required transfer.

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