u = f z x Vn, where g is gravity and f the Coriolis parameter. Explain how this equation is consistent with the geostrophic relationship between Coriolis force and pressure gradient.

(c) Assuming (for simplicity) that the flow is uniform to a depth

D = 500 m, and that the flow is zero below this depth, show that the net water transport (volume flux) along the Gulf Stream at this latitude is gD , — 5n, where 8n is the elevation difference you estimated in part (a). Evaluate this transport.

6. Figure 9.27 shows the trajectory of a "champion" surface drifter, which made one and a half loops around Antarctica between March, 1995, and March, 2000 (courtesy of Nikolai Maximenko). Red dots mark the position of the float at 30 day interval.

(a) Compute the mean speed of the drifter over the 5 years.

(b) Assuming that the mean zonal current at the bottom of the ocean is zero, use the thermal wind relation (neglecting salinity effects) to compute the depth-averaged temperature gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

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