FIGURE 12.5. Schematic meridional cross section of the near-equatorial upwelling induced by a westward wind stress near the equator. Since the upper-layer flow is divergent, mass continuity demands upwelling through the thermocline.

we have replaced 2Q by f in Eq. 7-23 of Section 7.3.4 and g = g (p1 - p2) |p1 is the reduced gravity. Here, near the equator, f is no longer approximately constant; for motions of length scale L centered on the equator, f ~ pL and so L2 ~ g 'h|p2L2, thus defining the equatorial deformation radius

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