A5 Figures And Access To Data Over The

The vast majority of the data and figures presented in this book were accessed and plotted using the Climate Data Library of the International Research Institute of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. The library contains numerous datasets from a variety of Earth science disciplines and climate-related topics, which are accessible free over the web— see http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/. Web-based tools permit access to data sets, analysis software for manipulation of the data and graphical presentation, together with the ability to download the data in numerous formats. An excellent specialized tool for plotting oceanographic hydrographic data is Ocean Data View: http://odv.awi.de.

References

Textbooks and reviews

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Houghton, J. T. et al. (1996). The science of climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

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Pickard, G. L., and Emery, W. J. (1990). Descriptive physical oceanography. 5th ed. ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford.

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Stewart, R. H. (2005). Introduction to physical oceanography. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/ ocngJextbook/contents.html.

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Vallis, G. K. (2006). Atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics: fundamentals and large-scale circulation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

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Wells, N. (1997). The atmosphere and oceans: a physical introduction. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Wunsch, C. (1996). The ocean circulation inverse problem. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Other references

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Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. (1994). World ocean atlas 1994, vol. 3: nutrients. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, U. S. Department of Commerce. Washington, D. C.

Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. (1994). World ocean atlas 1994, vol. 4: temperature. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, U. S. Department of Commerce. Washington, D. C.

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References to paleo-data sources (Chapter 12)

Berger, A., and Loutre, M. F. (1992). Astronomical solutions for paleoclimate studies over the last 3 million years. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 111, 369-382.

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Crowley, T., and Lowery, T. (2000). Northern hemisphere temperature reconstruction. Ambio. 29, 51-54.

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Moberg, A., Sonechkin, D., Holmgren, K., et al. (2005). Highly variable northern hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data. Nature 443, 613-617. doi:10.1038/nature03265.

Siegenthaler, I., Stocker, T. F., Monnin, E., et al. (2005). Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the late Pleistocene. Science 310,1313-1317.

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Index

Abrupt climate change, 260, 289-291 Absorption of radiation by carbon dioxide, 14 nitrogen, 14 oxygen, 14 ozone, 25 water vapor, 14 Absorptivity, 16

Abyssal circulation of ocean, 234 observations of, 245-247 Stommel's schematic of, 241f Acceleration centrifugal, 136 due to gravity, 7,100-101 terms in momentum equation, 84-87,110 Adiabatic compression, 144 lapse rate, 30, 39-41 motion, 49-41 Adiabats dry, 40 moist, 49-50 Age of water parcels, 238 Ageostrophic flow, 129-135 definition, 129

driven by rotating disc, 201-203 in high and low pressure systems, 130-133 Air density of, 4 dry, 5 moist, 5

physical properties of, 4-6 pressure, 4

Air temperature at surface global maps of, 263f seasonal range of, 262 Air-sea fluxes, 224-231 of buoyancy, 231f of heat balance in tropics, 231-232 contributions to, 225-228 global maps, 228f zonal-average of analyzed fields, 226 Albedo, 12

table of values of desert, snow etc, 11t Altimetry, 184,189 Amazon river, 215 Angular momentum, 142-143 absolute, 142 conservation of implied wind distribution, 143 day length and, 143 in radial inflow experiment, 93 of ring of air, 142f Angular velocity of earth, 1 Annular modes, 273 Annulus experiment, 146-147 Antarctic

Bottom Water (AABW), 236, 237f Circumpolar Current (ACC), 177f, 179,194, 220

Intermediate Water (AAIW), 234, 237f surface pressure around, 134 Anthropogenic forcing of climate, 291-292 Anticyclonic flow, 93,132, 201, 219 Aphelion, 63, 286 Archimedes, 34

Astronomical forcing of climate, 284-288 Atlantic Ocean oxygen distribution in, 238f sections of temperature and salinity, 173f,

188f, 236f, 237f, 247f SST, 179f surface currents, 179f mid-depth circulation, 181f, 249f Atmosphere characteristics of, 1-8 chemical composition of, 2-4 circulation of, 139-161 convection in, 39-42 density of, 1 energetics of, 153-154 energy balance of, 64 gases in, 2-4 geometry of, 1-2 heat transport in, 251-255 instability of, 40, 49-50 isothermal, 28

mean meridional circulation of, 74-77 measurements of, 5t meridional structure of, 61-79 non-isothermal, 28-29 pressure of, 4 stability in, 42-46 vertical structure of, 23-30 Atmospheric absorption spectrum, 13-14,13f Available Potential Energy (APE) baroclinic instability and, 139,146-147,147f,

152-153 computation of, 296 definition, 149 in atmosphere, 150 in ocean 219

schematic of creation mechanism, 219f Azimuthal velocity, 91,144-145

Balanced motion, 109-138

in radial inflow experiment, 116 Ball on curved surface, 33 Baroclinic fluid, xv, 122 Baroclinic instability, 146-149 APE in, 139,146-147,147f, 152-153 in atmosphere, 147 in ocean, 218-220 laboratory experiment, 146 wedge of, 152-154 Barotropic, xv fluid, 117,122

Bath-tub experiment, 103 Bathymetry, 164f Bergen school, 77 Beta effect, 206

representation in laboratory, 211f, 212 Bjerknes feedback, 269

schematic diagram of, 269f Jacob, 266 Vilhelm, 77 Black body, 10,13

energy emitted from, 11f, 13f, 295 Bolide impact, 294 Bort (de), Leon, 25 Boundary conditions, 89 current 178f, 179f, 206, 243

deep western, 245-247, 248f layer, xvf, 131 Boyle, Robert, 4 Brine rejection, 224 Brunt-Vaisala frequency, 44 Budget energy, 140f, 154-156, 247-255 mass, 87-89

momentum, 140f, 156-157 Buoyancy, 34-35, 43, 224 air-sea fluxes and, 224, 229 anomaly, 225 convection and, 197 in Cu, 52, 54f evolution equation for in ocean, 225 flux at sea surface, 225, 231f frequency, 44,126

definition in atmosphere, 44 definition in ocean, 174 hydrostatic balance and, 34f mixed layer and, 233 in oceans, 164 Buys-Ballot's law, 111

Carbon dioxide, 2, 275-276, 276f concentrations of, 3f through history, 277n, 279-280, 284, 285f, 289 increases in, 4, 291 IR and, 9 Centrifugal acceleration, 95 force, 92

CFC's—see Chlorofluorocarbons Charney, Jule, 153

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), 27 in atmosphere, 3t in ocean, 246

observations of, 248f Circulation angular momentum and, 156 of atmosphere, 139-161 GCMs, 272

mean meridional, 74-77 MOC, 252-253, 291 ocean density and, 216-218 in oceans, 140,163-194, 252f Atlantic, 177f, 179f, 181f global, 177f Indian, 180f Pacific, 178f oxygen and, 236-239 temperature and, 156 in tropics, 142-145 in troposphere, 141 winds and, 197-222 Circulation and vorticity, 106 Clausius, Rudolf, 39 Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, 6 CLIMAP, 281 Climate, 259-294 abrupt change, 289-291 as average weather, 259 through earth history, 275-277 ENSO and, 264-273 feedbacks, 19-20, 288, 291 forcing as a function of timescale, 260f forecasting variability in, 262 greenhouse, 280 latitude and, 157-158 norms, 259

paleoclimate, 273-292 role of ocean in, 261-264 variability stochastic model of, 264 Climatic optimum, 289 Climatic precession, 287 Cloud albedo of, 11t, 19-20 cumulonimbus, 51f, 52f, 53f, 53 cumulus, 51f, 52-53 formation experiment, 7 lenticular, 44, 45f supercell, 53f top, 48

vertical heat transport by, 51, 53 Cold front, 147,148f Cold tongue, 268

Compressible atmosphere convection in, 39-42 energetics of, 153-154 instability of, 40 flow, 88-89 fluid, 5 Concorde, 105 Condensation level, 48, 51f nucleii, 5, 7 Conditional stability, 50 Conservation of angular momentum, 93, 142 of energy, 139,154, 247-255 of mass, 87-89 Continental divide, 45 Continuity equation, 88

in pressure coordinates, 88 Convection, 19, 31-60, 32-33 in atmosphere, 46-56 buoyancy and, 197 Cb and, 53-55

in compressible atmosphere, 39-42

deep,51, 233-239

in deserts, 42

dry, 39-42

drying due to, 73f energetics of, 36

heat transport in, 38-39

humidity and, 47-48

instability and, 33-34

laboratory experiment, 36, 57

moist, 46-50

in oceans, 164, 234-237, 235f, 236f precipitation and, 6

radiation and, 56-57

shallow, 32-33, 56

SST and, 224

stability and, 35-36

study of, 37f in tropics, 51

in water, 34-39

where does it occur in Atmosphere?, 55 where does it occur in Ocean?, 232, 233f Conveyor belt schematic diagram of, 252 Coordinate system Cartesian, 101, 297 polar, 92f, 298 spherical, 101, 298

Coriolis acceleration, 93, 95 force components on the sphere, 101 laboratory experiment, 96 Gustave, 95 parameter, 100,102 Counter-current equatorial, 214f Cretaceous, 278f, 280 Crocodiles, north of the Arctic circle, 279 Cryosphere, 165 Cumulonimbus, 51, 52f, 53 Cumulus, 51, 54f Cyclonic flow, 93 Cyclostrophic balance, 116 Cylinder collapse experiment, 123, 126

Dalton's law, 5

Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events, 260, 289 Darwin, Charles, 265 Day, variations in length of, 143 Deacon, George, 179 Defant, Albert, 146 Deflecting force, 98 Delta O18, 277-279 in benthic foraminifera last 2.5 million years, 283f last 70 million years, 279f in foraminifera shells, 298 of ice last 20 thousand years, 290f last 50 thousand years, 283f Density anomaly, 119,166

depth of density surfaces in ocean, 170,173f of air, 4

potential density distribution in ocean, 172f surface outcrops in ocean, 173 vertical variation in atmosphere, 29 Desert, 42

subtropical, 157 Dew point, 7 Diabatic heating rate, 89 Differentiation following the motion, 82-83 Downdraft, 73f Drake Passage, 164

closing and opening of, 277 Dry adiabatic lapse rate, 39-41 Dry convection schematic, 43f

Dry static energy, 154 Dryas Octopetala, 289 Dust, 295 Dust bowl, 260 Dye stirring, xviii, 117f Dynamic height, 187-188 Dynamic method, 187-188

Eady Eric, 149 growth rate, 149 Earth axis of, 62f, 63, 286, 286f blackbody spectrum for, 13

climate history of, 275-277

energy from, 9f orbit, 62-63, 284

orbital changes of, 284-288, 286f parameters, 1t rotating fluids and, 103-104

as snowball, 260, 275n solar constant for, 10t spin, 1, 286

in opposite direction, 221 temperature of, 14 Eccentricity, 287 Eddies atmospheric, 77,146

momentum transport by, 156 time and space scales, 147-148 banana-shaped, 157f ocean, 181,198 observations of, 185f, 188 time and space scales, 219 large-scale, xv stirring by, 147 Effective planetary temperature, 11 Ekman layer, 129 balance of forces in, 199 depth of, 200

in atmosphere on planetary scale, 133 in laboratory experiment, 220 mass transport of, 200 theory of, 198 vertical motion in, 131 pumping, 198f and suction, 201 driven by wind patterns, 203 expression for, 204 plotted from analyzed fields, 205f response of the interior ocean to, 206 schematic of driving by large-scale wind field, 204f spiral, 131, 201f theory, 130 transport in tropical ocean, 234 Ekman, Vagn Walfrid, 201 El Nifno-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 269-272, 289

theory of, 272 Emission temperature, 12 Energy balance of atmosphere, 9, 64 top of the atmosphere, 64f budget of atmosphere, 139 dry static, 154 internal of atmosphere, 139 kinetic, 154 moist static, 154 potential, 36

transport northward, 64f Energetics in compressible atmosphere, 153-154 convection and, 36 of thermal wind equation, 149-154 ENSO, 269-272: see also El Nino-Southern Oscillation, Bjerknes positive feedback, 273 theory of, 272 Entropy, 64 Eocene, 278f Equation of state of air, 4 of water, 168 Equations of motion, 84-89 in a rotating frame, 90, 94-95, 182

on sphere in local Cartesian system, 102 in Cartesian coordinates, 87 in spherical coordinates, 100-102 non-rotating, 84-89 Equatorial counter-current, 214f currents, 178 Pacific, 265

atmospheric convection in, 55 upwelling, 267f Equilibrium, between radiation and convection,

56-57 Equinox, 63

Equipotential surface parabola, 96 Equivalent potential temperature, 50 Euler, Leonhard, 83 Eulerian derivative, 83 Evaporation annual-mean map of, 230 as principal heat loss term, 232 Expansion coefficient of water, 166 Extra-tropical circulation of atmosphere, 145 of ocean, 176

Faint early sun paradox, 275, 293 Feedback, 18

due to black body radiation, 19, 22 due to clouds, 20 evaporative, 232 ice-albedo, 19, 289 water vapor, 19 Ferrel Cell, 77 William, 77 Fisheries off South America, 268 Float PALACE, 180 displacements, 249f Fluid—See also Rotating fluids compressible, 39, 88-89 continuum, 4 convection in, 32-33, 33f dynamics geophysical, xvii friction and, 86-87 gravity and, 85-86 hydrostatic balance and, 87 incompressible, 88 motion of, 81-107 natural, xv nonrotating, 84-87 Fog, 8

Foraminifera, 279f, 298 Foucault pendulum, 100 Frame of reference, 90

absolute, 91 Freshwater transport by ocean, 256f, 257 Friction, 86, 129-130 in western boundary currents, 207, 243

Fronts, 147-148 Cold, 148f Warm, 148f

Gaia hypothesis, 276 General circulation of atmosphere, 139,141f of ocean, 176-182,177f Geoid, 183 of a rotating fluid, 97 of earth, 101 Geologic time table of names and dates, 274f Geometric height, 101 Geopotential height, 67

surfaces on the sphere, 100 Geostrophic adjustment, 125 balance, 110-116

at (near) the equator, 267 in Cartesian coordinates, 113 in ocean, 182 current divergence of, 206 flow at depth in ocean, 184 at ocean surface, 183 motion, 110 streamlines, 113 wind, 111, 112

divergence of, 112 in pressure coordinates, 113 Geothermal heating, 164 Glacial-interglacial cycles, 282-288 astronomical forcing of, 284-288 caveats,

Global overturning circulation in ocean, 252f,

254f, 254 Global warming, 291-292

trend from proxy and instrumental records, 292f Gravity, 85 modified by centrifugal forces, 95, 97,101f reduced, 226 Gravity waves in atmosphere, 42, 44 in the ocean, 174-175 internal, 44 surface, 44 Greenhouse climates, 280

climate feedbacks and, 19-20 domestic, 15f effect, 9,14-20

models of, 14-20 gases, 14

distribution of, 23, 25 leaky, 16,17f opacity and, 16-19,17f Gulf Stream, 169

dynamical balance in, 193 rings, 189 Gyres in laboratory experiment, 212f ocean, 176 subpolar, 178 subtropical, 179

Hadley circulation, 75, 76f, 141f, 142,143f, 156, 229, 268 schematic, 73f Hadley, George, 73 Hailstones, 55 Heat budget of atmosphere, 154-156, 253-255 of ocean, 247-255 Heat capacity of slab of ocean, 261 of soil and rock, 262 Heat engine, xvi Heat transport in atmosphere, 140f, 154-156

mechanisms of, 156 by fluid motions, 64 in ocean, 248 mechanisms of, 253 methods of computation, 250 by ocean gyres, 221 observations of basin by basin, 250 meridional atmosphere, 156f ocean, 156f partition between atmosphere and ocean, 255f Height of free surface observations of (ocean), 185f, 186f Heinrich events, 260, 289 High pressure, 114

schematic, 111f Holicism, xix Holocene, 289-290

transition from LGM, 290f Howard, Luke, 51

Humidity convection and, 47-48 relative, 48 saturation specific, 48 specific, 47-48 temperature and, 70-73 Hydrographic section 25W, 173f across 30S in Atlantic, 247f across Labrador Sea, 236f through Gulf Stream along 38N, 188f Hydrostatic balance, 26-28, 33, 68, 92 buoyancy and, 34f conditions for validity of, 87 fluids and, 87 internal energy and, 153 inferences from, 182-188

Ice particles, in clouds, 7, 54 puck, 97 sheets, 165 at Last Glacial Maximum, 281, 282f Ice ages, 260, 280-291 Ice cores, 282-284, 283f record over last 600 thousand years, 285f Incandescent material, 10 Incompressible flow, 88 Inertial circles, 98-100

laboratory experiment, 97 observations of, 100f frame, 99 period, 100 Infrared radiation (IR), 2, 9,14 carbon dioxide and, 9, 14 water vapor and, 2, 9, 14 Instability. See also Baroclinic instability of atmosphere, 49-50 of ball on corrugated surface, 33 of compressible atmosphere, 40 convection and, 33-34 Instrumental record, 262 Interglacials, 259, 282-284 Internal energy, 153

for compressible atmosphere, 296 Inversion, 44-46

trade, 46f Ionosphere, 24 Isentropic surfaces, 64 Isopycnal slope, 186 Isothermal atmosphere, 28, 68

Isotopes, of oxygen, 279, 279f Isthmus of Panama, 277

Jet Stream, 273 Jupiter, 10t, 20 Jurassic, 278f

K-T extinction, 294 Kinetic energy, xv ratio to potential energy, 151 Kirchhoff's law, 16 Kuroshio, 169,177f, 178f

La Nina, 269f, 269-271 Laboratory experiment abyssal ocean circulation, 241 baroclinic instability, 146 cloud formation, 7 complete list, 300-301 convection, 36 cylinder collapse, 123 dye stir, xvii, 117

on earth's rotation: Perrot bathtub, 103 Ekman layers, 130 Ekman pumping and suction, 201 Hadley circulation, 120,144 parabolic equipotential surfaces, 96 radial inflow, 90 rotation stiffens fluid, xvii source-sink flow in a rotating system, 245 Taylor columns, 118 thermal wind, 219 visualizing the Coriolis force, 97 wind-driven gyres, 211 Lagrangian derivative, 82-84 Lake discharge in to ocean, 290 freezing of, 166

inland, at last glacial maximum, 281 Lapse rate dry-adiabatic, 40 moist, 49 Last glacial maximum, 281, 282f Latent heat, 154

content of air parcel, 49 flux bulk formula for, 226 schematic of mechanism, 228 Laurentide Ice sheet, 281

Laws of mechanics, 84 of thermodynamics, 89 Lee waves, 45 Little Ice Age, 260

Local thermodynamic equilibrium, 4 Longwave radiation emitted, 63-64 Low pressure, 114-116 schematic, 111f

Margules Max, 125 relation, 123-125 Mass conservation, 87 Material derivative, 83 Mauna Loa, 4 Maury, Matthew, 74 Meridional overturning circulation of ocean (MOC), 253, 254f of atmosphere, 74 Mesopause, 24, 65 Mesosphere, 24 Mid-Atlantic ridge, 216 Milankovitch cycles, 63, 284, 288f Milankovitch, Milutin, 284 Mixed layer buoyancy and, 233 in ocean, 171

model of, 191 observed depth of in ocean, 174f processes in, 175f schematic diagram of, 175f MOC (meridional overturning circulation), 253

and climate change, 290-291 Modified gravitational potential, 101 Moist convection, 46-50 Moist potential temperature, 50 climatological profile, 41f observed, 67f Moist static energy, 49, 254 Moisture, 5-6

distribution of, 6, 70-73 Momentum budget of atmosphere, 140f, 156-157 equation, 84-87,102,182 Mountain waves. See Lee waves Mountains, clouds and, 44, 45f

Nansen, Fridtjof, 201 Nitrogen, 2, 14

Non-isothermal atmosphere, 28-29

North Atlantic Current, 207

North Atlantic Deep Water, 236, 237f, 246, 247f

North Atlantic Oscillation, 265f, 273

North Star, 163, 287

North Pole, 125f

Obliquity, 286 Ocean, adjustment timescale of, 261 albedo of, 11t APE in, 151n baroclinic instability in, 218-220 basins in, 164-165 evolution of, 276

as a buffer of climate change, 262-262

buoyancy in, 164

circulation at mid-depth, 181f, 249f Atlantic, 179f global, 177f Indian, 180f Pacific, 178f, 215f schematic, 214f climate and, 261

compared to atmosphere, 163-164 convection in, 164

currents in, 177f, 178f, 179f, 180f, 181f classification of, 214 density of, circulation and, 216-218 Ekman pumping and, 205n equator-to-pole temperature gradient and, 261 evaporation in, 172 key facts, 165

freshwater transport by, 255-256 gateways in, 277

global overturning circulation in, 252f, 254f, 255f heat transport by, 247-255 measurements of, 165t mixed layer in, 171-176 radiation in, 171-172

role of heat transport by in paleo climate, 176,

290-291 salinity of, 168f, 171f salt in, 7

solar radiation and, 261 surface, 183, 185f geostrophic flow and, 183-184 height of, 184,185f steric effects on, 186-187 salinity at, 169

stratification of, 216-218, 233f temperature in, 170f, 261-264 thermohaline circulation of, 223-258 two-layer model of, 266 wind stress on, 164,199f, 215f Ocean surface temperature. See Sea surface temperature Ocean gyres effects of stratification and topography on,

217-218 schematic diagram of, 214f theory of, 213-216 volume transport in, 216 Outgoing radiation, 55-56, 63-64 Oxygen, 2

role in absorption of radiation, 14 distribution in Atlantic vs Pacific ocean, 238f, 239

Ozone, 14

absorption by, 25 profile of, 25f

Pacific Ocean oxygen distribution in, 238f SST, 178f surface currents, 178f Sverdrup balance in, 215 Paleoclimate, 273-292

proxy data, 273 Paleogeographic reconstructions, 278 Paleotemperatures, 277-280 Pangea, 278

Parabolic surface, 92, 96-97

Coriolis forces and, 96-100 Parcel of fluid, 34 Pascal, Blaise, 27 Perfect gas law, 4 Perihelion, 63, 286 Perrot, 103

bathtub experiment, 103-104 Photodissociation, 24 Photolysis, 24 Pip flicking, 211 Planck function, 295 spectrum, 11 Planck, Max, 10 Planets properties of, 10 Plumb line, 101 Polar coordinates, 92

night, 63 oceans convection in, 232-234 Pollution, 46-47 Porridge/polenta convection of, 33 Potential energy, 149 available, 150-154

creation by winds in ocean, 219 in two-layer fluid, 151 in atmosphere, 153 release of, 352 Potential temperature, 41 atmospheric profile, 41f equation for evolution of, 89 moist, 50

observed (atmosphere), 66f, 67f Precession, 286 Precipitation convection and, 6 annual-mean map of, 230 Preconditioning of deep convection in ocean, 233-234 schematic diagram of, 237f Pressure, 4-6

at center of planet, 29 at surface of earth climatological map, 133f instantaneous map, 132f coordinates, 67-68

volume element in, 88 gradients of, 73, 85f, 86, 92 loading of ocean, 182 partial, 5

saturated vapor, 6 surfaces 500mb, 69f tilt of, 70,113 unit of, 4 Pressure gradient force, 73, 85-86 Profiling float, 180n Pseudo-adiabatic lapse rate, 49n

Radial force balance, 92-93 Radial inflow experiment, 90 Radiation absorption of, 11, 13f convection and entering the ocean, 171 IR, 10 net, 63

reflection of, 11

by season, 62-63 solar, 10 UV, 10,14 Radiative convective equilibrium, 31, 56-57 equilibrium temperature, 9

forcing, temperature and, 62-67 profile, 18f, 26 Rainfall rate, 59, 230f Reflection clouds and, 11 deserts and, 11 of radiation, 11 snow and, 11 Relative humidity, 48, 71

by zones, 72f Rayleigh (Lord), 32 Red spectrum, 264 Reduced gravity, 126, 267 Reference ellipsoid, 101,183 Relative humidity, 71, 72f Respiration, 3 Rossby adjustment problem, 125-126 number, 19,110,116,182,199 computed from data, 115f in atmosphere, xix in Gulf Stream, 182 in ocean, xix in radial flow experiment, 116 radius of deformation, 126,148, 219 at the equator, 267

ratio of between atmosphere and ocean, 151 Rossby, Carl-Gustav, 110 Rotating coordinates, 93-96

transformation rule, 94 turntable, xiii, 81, 299 Rotating fluids, xvii, 81 Earth and, 103-104 equations for, 90-104 parabolic shape of, 96-100 radial inflow and, 90-93, 90n rotating coordinates, 93-94 on spheres, 100-103 Rotation, gravity and, 123-125

Sahara, 59 Salinity distribution at sea surface, 168f distribution in ocean, 171f evolution equation for in ocean, 225

transport by ocean, 255 units of, 165 Saturated vapor pressure, 5-6 Saturated specific humidity, 48 Scale height (atmospheric), 28 Sea floor spreading, 280 Sea level air pressure at, 134f in Cretaceous, 280 at LGM, 282f Sea surface elevation altimetric observations of, 185 temperature, 167f anomalies in the Pacific, 269f, 270-271 damping timescale of, 261 during ENSO, 269f during glacial periods, 281 factors controlling, 231 instantaneous map in Gulf Stream, 191f non-seasonal changes, 262 sensitivity of atmosphere to, 264 SOI and, 271f Sea water density of, 166f equation of state, 168 major constituents, 168t Seasonal cycle in ocean, 175f, 176 Seasons, 62

Sensible heat flux, 227f bulk formula for, 226 Shallow atmosphere, 101 Shortwave flux at sea surface, 225, 226f Sierra Nevada, 44 Smoke, 7 Snow albedo of, 11t reflection and, 11 Snowball earth, 260, 275 SOI. see Southern Oscillation Index Solar constant, 9 radiation, 62 absorbed, 63f distribution of, 62f oceans and, 261 seasonal cycle, 62 spectrum, 10 Solstice, 63f, 286 Sonic boom, 8f

Southern hemisphere geostrophic balance in, 136 Southern ocean, 163 Southern Oscillation, 264-273

Index, 270 Specific humidity, 70-73 meridional section of, 71f saturated, 72f temperature and, 71 Spectroscopic measurements, 30 Spheres centrifugal force on, 101f Coriolis forces on, 101-103 rotating fluids on, 100-103 Taylor-Proudman theorem on, 208-211, 224 Spherical coordinates, 102 Sphericity representation of in laboratory experiment, 211

Spinning top as analogue of wind-driven circulation, 211 Squall front, 54f Stability condition dry adiabatic, 40 conditional, 50

to vertical displacements, 35-36 Standard temperature and pressure, 2 Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 295 law, 11 Steric effect, 186 Stommel, Henry, 240 Stommel's abyssal theory, 245-246 Stratification observations of in ocean, 233f Stratopause, 24f, 63f Stratosphere, 24, 25, 65, 67f winter polar, 137 Streamfunction for geostrophic motion 113

for meridional overturning circulation, 76,

251-253 for Sverdrup flow, 214 Subduction in ocean circulation, 172 Subgeostrophic flow, 129-135 Subpolar gyres, 178 Substantial derivative, 82-84 Subtropics, evaporation in, 232 Subtropical jet, 74,144 Sulfate aerosols, 7 Summer pole, 63

energy emitted from, 10 Supercell, 53f

Surface air temperatures, 263f history of, 292 Surface currents global, 177f in Atlantic Ocean, 179f in high resolution ocean model, 192f in Indian Ocean, 180f in Pacific Ocean, 178f measured by drifters in Atlantic, 208f Surface drifters, 176 in Antarctic Circumpolar Current, 194f speeds from, 190f Surface elevation of ocean observations of, 185f Surface pressure, 27

climatological map of, 133f instantaneous map of , 132f zonal-average, 134f Surface temperature global average of, 10f in greenhouse model, 15 Sverdrup, Harald, 213 Sverdrup relation, 213

theory of ocean circulation, 214-216 transport, 216

computed in Pacific, 215 unit of volume transport, 215, 253 redefined as a unit of mass transport, 253

Taylor Column, xviii, 118-119, 210, 217, 217f gyroscopic rigidity of, 209 Taylor, G.I., 118 Taylor expansion, 33, 296 Taylor-Proudman theorem, 117-119 in a layered ocean, 217-218 breakdown of, 243 on sphere, 207-211, 224, 239-241 Tectonic uplift role in chemical weathering, 275-276 Temperature. See also Radiative equilibrium temperature; Sea surface temperature absolute, 4 circulation and, 156 and CO2

in the paleo record, 277, 279f of Earth, global average mean, 14 emission, 12

evolution equation for, 225

humidity and, 70-73 inversions in, 44-46

meridional structure in atmosphere, 64-66,

65f, 66f, 67f, 127f, 128f at 500mb, 127f of mesopause, 24f of mesosphere, 24f of ocean surface, 167f distribution in ocean, 170f, 173f, 188f, 237f, 247f paleotemperatures, 277-280 pole-equator difference, 64 of radiative equilibrium, 9 radiative forcing and, 62-67 salinity and, 168-171 saturated vapor pressure and, 6 specific humidity and, 71 of stratosphere, 65-67 of thermosphere, 24f of troposphere, 64-65 vertical distribution of, 23-26, 24f winds and, 73-78 Terrestrial radiation from troposphere, 31 water vapor and, 19 Tethys Sea, 278f Thermal wind, 119-128

and pole-equator temperature difference, 127f and Taylor-Proudman theorem, 122-123

energetics of, 149-154

equation for incompressible fluid, 120

in ocean, 186

in pressure coordinates, 126 physical content of, 122 summary equations, 135 Thermals, 37 Thermobaric effect, 231 Thermocline, 169,171-172,175f, 197

schematic diagram, 198f Thermodynamic equation, 89 Thermodynamics, first law of, 39 Thermohaline circulation, 197 dynamical models of, 239-241 inference from tracer observations, 234 role in climate change, 290-291 schematic, 224

time scales and intensity of, 239 Thermosphere, 23, 24 temperature of, 24f Thermostat, operating over earth history,

275-276 Thickness, 70, 79 Thunderstorms, 56 Topography, 2

Torque on atmosphere, 143 Torricelli, Evangelista, 68 Total derivative, 82-84 Trade inversion, 144 winds, 134f, 143f, 144f, 157 Transport computation of in ocean, 187 Triatomic molecules, 14 Tropical rain forest, 157 Tropics. See also El Niño-Southern Oscillation circulation in, 142-145 convection in, 51 moist air in, 6 Tropopause, 24f, 25

gap, 65 Troposphere, 23, 25 circulation in, 141

radiative equilibrium temperature profile for, 26f temperature of, 24f, 64-65 terrestrial radiation from, 31 weather in, 26 Turbulence shear-induced, xv within ocean mixed layer, 175f

Ultraviolet, 19, 24 Universal gas constant, 4 Updraft, 55, 71

Vapor pressure saturated, 6 Venus, 10t Vertical velocity in pressure coordinates, 84 Visible spectrum, 10, 14 Volcanic activity, 275-276

and CO2, 276 Vorticity, 106, 244 Voyage of the Beagle (Darwin), 265

Walker circulation, 268, 272 Gilbert, 266 Warm front, 148f Warm pool, 268 Water convection in, 34-39

equation of state, 168 fresh, 166

physical properties of, 165 Water vapor, xvif, xix, 2, 5-6, 26f infrared radiation and, 2 saturated with, 5, 6f vertical distribution of, 26f vertical transport, 73f Wavelength, energy flux and, 10 Weather systems in atmosphere, 147-149 in ocean, 188-189 Weathering of rocks and atmospheric CO2, 276 Wedge of instability, 152 Westerly wind bursts, 273 Western boundary currents, 176, 243-244 breakdown of geostrophy in, 244 laboratory demonstration, 212f, 243f, 246f reason for existence of, 243 schematic diagram of, 207f why western?, 206-207 White noise, 262 Wien's displacement law, 13 Wind shear, 120,122,128,139,152,183,198, 268 Wind-driven ocean circulation, 197-222 Wind-stress annual-mean distribution of, 199f bulk formula for, 198 zero curl line, 204-205

Winds. See also Thermal wind; Trade winds circulation and, 197-222 distribution of, 74-78,158f easterlies, 74 eddies, 77-78, 146 in Ekman layer, 130-133 Ekman pumping and, 205n global pattern of schematic, 158f gyres and, 206-207 mean meridional circulation of, 74-77 mean zonal, 74 meridional cross section instantaneous, 128f on oceans, 164 temperature and, 73-78 westerly, 127f, 157, 204f zonal average observed, 75f, 76f Work done by wind on ocean, 207 Wust, Georg, 187

Younger Dryas, 260, 281, 290f Yucatan Peninsula, 294

Zonal average, 64

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