Cleaning Up Ebooks Catalog
The Gross National Product by mid-decade. That is the size of the entire defense budget during the peak of the Reagan buildup. Simply cleaning up known hazardous waste sites at federally owned facilities is expected to cost over 125 billion 2 , with the figure being adjusted upwards every year. Newly recognized threats are being discussed that will only add to the potential size of this burden 3,4 . In addition, consumers will bear an additional burden. Some of this burden is hidden in the price of consumer goods, as those private-sector firms that continue in business rather than declaring bankruptcy either pay for required cleanups, self-insure against the need to clean up in the future, or develop new processes to avoid becoming a party to a future cleanup. In some cases, businesses will choose to go out of business rather than risk personal or corporate liabilities of staggering proportions. At the least, this will reduce the number of choices available to consumers, and at the...
Gasification of coal utilized a GE Texaco entrained-flow gasifier, and gasification of switch grass (or other biomass) utilized an oxygen-steam blown fluid-bed gasifier. Costs were updated to a 2007-cost basis using the Chemical Engineering Plant Construction Cost Index. Technology required for gas clean-up, for water-gas shift to achieve the desired H2 to CO ratio for synthesis, and that for the separation of CO2 from the H2 plus CO stream was then integrated into the technology chain. The required synthesis gas conversion technology (FT or methanol MTG) was then integrated with the front-end of the process (gasification, clean-up, etc.), and the needed refining was added to the back-end to produce liquid transportation fuels that meet current fuel standards. Power generation technology was added to the back end to produce electricity from purge gas and other fuel gas streams. Mass and energy balances were carried out using Aspen Plus to allow sizing of the equipment. The typical...
Figure 3.8 illustrates a process configuration for the joint conversion of biomass and coal. Because of the different handling and gasification behaviors of coal and biomass, a different gasifier was used for each in this evaluation. The synthesis gas streams were combined after the gasification and gas clean-up to gain economies of scale downstream. The plant employs recycle around the reactor to maximize liquid fuel production, and the separated CO2 is either vented or geologically stored.
The potential environmental liabilities and uncertainty faced by industry increased with CERCLA. While it was understood in 1980 that CERCLA's imposed liability represented a substantial cost, its true magnitude was unclear. Time has clarified the cost investigating and cleaning up old waste sites has proved so expensive that involvement in a Superfund site as a potentially responsible party may represent a liability sufficient to threaten the existence of many firms. Cropper and Oates 7 argue that the imposition of strict liability places an expected value on polluting activities. The expected value would be the discounted cost of a potential future cleanup or compensation effort multiplied by the probability (
A clean-up of the highly polluted oil and gas fields will help to assuage hurt nerves and also make it possible for local people to regain their means of livelihoods - tightly linked to available environmental resources. A 1997 report by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) estimated that cleaning up the Niger Delta environment would cost up to UK 4 billion (Okonta and Oronto, 2001, p272). The oil corporations are estimated to have pumped out oil worth over US 350 billion since operations started in the region. It is our considered estimate that this total sum will be needed just to begin an auditing of the degradation and commencement of efforts to restore the wrecked physical environment of the Niger Delta, without even considering damage to the political, spiritual and social spheres. But it would be a good start. And time is running out.
There is therefore no doubt about the long-term survival of the biosphere, despite the currently accelerating rate of greenhouse gas emissions. Indeed, by transforming fossil fuel CO2 into carbonates that are buried on the ocean floor, the geological carbon sink will eventually clean up our mess and return atmospheric composition to the pre-Industrial state. Can we rely on these 'geologic' sinks to stabilize atmospheric CO2 and climate without any societal intervention, leaving us free to continue to burn fossil fuels in a 'business as usual' fashion Unfortunately, 'Mother Earth' is not a quick healer and the geologic carbon sinks will be of little help in damping the maximum future 'greenhouse' warming of the planet. This warming, along with other global environmental impacts will occur much quicker than the geological sinks can cope with.
As a result of the clean-up efforts to date in the harbor, the public has enjoyed greatly increased opportunities for recreational uses such as swimming, boating, and fishing. The improvements in water quality also provide substantial benefits to the local economy through commercial fishing and other water-based revenue-generating activities. Although tremendous ecological improvements have resulted from water pollution control efforts implemented since the 1970s, a number of environmental problems remain to be solved for the Hudson-Raritan estuary. Some contemporary concerns and issues include, for example, contamination of sediments and restrictions on dredge spoil disposal, remaining fish advisories for human consumption, episodic low dissolved oxygen, the occurrence of nuisance algal blooms and effluent controls on nitrogen discharged to the estuary and increasing nonpoint source runoff from overdevelopment within the drainage basin of the estuary (NYCDEP, 1999). The success of...
As the idea that we are each responsible for cleaning up our own mess gains sway among religious and secular institutions, a powerful dynamic will be at play in the marketplace. For example, Land Rover will be including the cost of offsetting carbon emissions for the first 45,000 miles driven in the price of most of its models sold in the UK beginning in 2007. The company has clearly calculated that most of its consumers are prepared to pay a little extra in order to reduce their impact on the environment.
Other industrial solvents have entered into the groundwater simply by poor industry practices, and in some cases, downright negligence and disregard for public safety. This may seam like a harsh statement, but we must recognize that environmental legislation as we know it today, did not exist 30 some odd years ago. As such there was no real driving force for industry to protect the environment, other than say their own sense of public safety. Since pollution controls cost money, from a business standpoint, it makes little sense to invest in technologies aimed at cleaning up pollution, and three or more decades ago, the concepts of pollution prevention were simply not within the mainstream of industry thinking. Although a gross over-generalization, certainly there certainly were companies that simply dumped spent solvents directly on bare ground, and in some situations, were well aware of the Today we have laws that protect our water resources, along with widespread public awareness of...
Another major concern is being named as a potentially responsible party (PRP) in a lawsuit to clean up a disposal site. Many generators have paid disposal fees to service companies to legally dispose of their hazardous wastes only to be sued by the Federal EPA. The San Francisco Examiner reported on 12-1-88 that 100 companies to pay 66,000,000 at 190 acre dump operated by Industries, Inc. located in Monterey Park, 10 miles from Los Angeles.
A detailed overview of pollution parameters stemming from various diffuse sources discharging stormwater runoff contaminated by industrial activities is presented in Section 19.3. The type of pollution and the extent and diversity of contamination, as well as the measures to be undertaken for prevention and treatment, depend of course on the particular type of activity and the chemicals utilized, manufactured, stored, or transported. In each case, care should be taken to identify and subtract background mineral and organic natural pollution concentrations in order to account 'for the actual pollutant loading contribution by the industrial activities themselves. Major water quality parameters of concern will undoubtedly include BOD, suspended solids, pathogens, mineral oil and grease, heavy metals, nutrients such as N and P, insecticides and pesticides, but also all sorts of trace man-made substances from the EPA's priority pollutants list. Of greater concern should be the pollutants...
Around a plant involve cleaning up spills, washing vessels and all sorts of containers, and washing floors in the production buildings and warehouses. In many cases, the drains may be connected to the stormwater drainage system of the site, thereby causing direct contamination. On the other hand, accidental spills in parking lots, unloading areas, driveways, and roads within the site and intentional discharges of waste storage and disposal areas provide a variety of pollutants that contaminate the surface runoff originating at the site.
Preparation for the storm started as the storm approached the Gulf of Mexico. Standard preparations start at the beginning of each hurricane season and the Emergency Standard Operating Procedures served the campus well. Hurricanes Dolly, Edouard and Gustav earlier in the year each served to help prepare for Ike. The situational awareness was at a very high level. There were lessons learned in each previous storm that served to prevent even greater impacts to the campus facilities and helped prepare staff for this event. For Ike, the decision to evacuate patients and non-essential personnel, students and staff came Thursday (36hrs) before the storm. The evacuation went smoothly. Other preparations included ensuring the supply stock was full, preparation of the command center, cleaning up and tying down loose equipment, and hardening certain areas for wind. Reserve supplies of diesel fuel, food, potable water and linens were ordered and delivered in the days before the storm. A mobile...
Study section reviews the literature on three incidents of chemical emergencies during hurricanes for issues that were broader than the typical HSEES data to elucidate lessons learned. These case studies were chosen to bring up issues that HSEES does not focus data collection on, including vulnerable populations, petroleum emergency clean-up, and chemical waste disposal issues. These were three very prominent cases that arose from the 2005 hurricane season.
Approach might be to use a water purification method such as ionexchange to clean up the wash water, then simply concentrate the ion-exchange regeneration chemicals in the evaporator. Preadjusting the pH of the solution before evaporation may be necessary to prevent the formation of unwanted gases at high or very low pHs.
In North America, the use of bubbling fluidized bed combustion is increasingly finding more acceptance as a means for the production of energy from the combustion of used tires and municipal wastes 28 . In the United States, circulating fluidized bed combustion is being used for disposal of hazardous wastes 17,18 . In Canada, a 10 MW(e) revolving fluidized bed unit has recently been built to cleanly burn residues from tar ponds near Sydney, Nova Scotia 29 . Although the main thrust of this project is to clean up 700,000 tons of coke oven residues, the energy production is not unimportant. This unit is due to become fully operational in 1993.
A PC unit with a complete set of advanced criteria-emissions controls is shown in Fig. 2.3. It can be viewed as consisting of three blocks the boiler block, the steam-cycle steam-turbine block, and the flue gas clean-up block as shown in Fig. 2.4. The design and operating conditions of the steam-cycle block largely determines the generating efficiency of the unit. For most existing PC units, the design and operating conditions of the steam cycle is below the critical point of water, which is referred to as subcritical operation. Operation above the critical point of water is referred to as supercritical operation. Ultra-supercritical is used to denote operation
The study of the relationships between heat and other forms of energy is called thermodynamics. All living things utilize heat, therefore, the science of thermodynamics may be used to evaluate life processes. An example of a life process is the growth of bacteria when wastewater is fed to them to treat the waste. Knowledge of microbial thermodynamics is therefore important to professionals involved in cleaning up wastewaters.
Revenue impacts must be closely examined. For example, companies often can cut wastewater treatment costs if water use (and, in turn, the resulting wastewater flow) is limited to nonpeak times at the wastewater treatment facility. However, this limitation on water use could hamper production. Consequently, even though the company's actions to regulate water use could reduce wastewater charges, revenue could also be decreased, unless alternative methods could be found to maintain total production. Conversely, a change in a production procedure as a result of a technology change could increase revenue. For example, moving from liquid to dry paint stripping can not only reduce water consumption, but also affect production output. Because clean-up time from dry paint-stripping operations (such as bead blasting) is generally much shorter than from using a hazardous, liquid based stripper, it could mean not only the elimination of the liquid waste stream (this is a pollution prevention...
There would also be the challenge of higher demand placed on available water resources, and serious deforestation as a result of people felling trees and clearing grounds for shelter and other human related activities. Forest reserves would be taken over by people, and wildlife would be seriously endangered. This could lead to the problem of erosion and water pollution, as particles of erosion could be washed into fresh water resources, creating an additional need for governments to clean up the water and make it safe for domestic use. In effect, this would bring about a depletion of available resources, carrying with it some environmental issues of degradation and mismanagement.
Palm oil mill effluent originates from two main processes sterilization and clarification stages, as the condensate and clarification sludge, respectively (Fig. 2). The clarification sludge shows higher level of solid residues compared to the sterilizer condensate. Both contain some level of unrecovered oils and fats. The final POME would of course include hydrocyclone washing and cleaning up processes in the mill 1 . Approximately 1-1.5 tons of water are required to process 1 ton of FFB.
Hydrocyclones are used to separate solids from the fluid. They work by the principle of cyclones. Fluid is directed to the top of the cyclone under pressure. Hydrocyclones cannot efficiently remove oil and particles below 5 pm. Centrifugation, employing forces of several thousand g, separates free oils as well as emulsified oil. Pasteurization is used, generally, in combination with centrifuging to clean up bacterial contamination.
In the U.S., three federal programs are currently in progress for identifying and cleaning up contaminated sites1 Source From NATO CCMS, Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater, NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Phase III, 1999 Annual Report, EPA 542 R-99 007, no. 235, 1999 Ferguson, C. and Kasamas, H., Eds., Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites in Europe, Vol. 2. Policy Frameworks, LGM Press, Nottingham, UK, 1999. With permission. Source From NATO CCMS, Evaluation of Demonstrated and Emerging Technologies for the Treatment and Clean Up of Contaminated Land and Groundwater, NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Phase III, 1999 Annual Report, EPA 542 R-99 007, no. 235, 1999 Ferguson, C. and Kasamas, H., Eds., Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites in Europe, Vol. 2. Policy Frameworks, LGM Press, Nottingham, UK, 1999. With permission.
In the meantime, the trash simply circles the planet, often colliding and breaking into smaller and smaller pieces. Scientists have warned that we are approaching a point at which the space junk could endanger future space programs. Although the danger is less for peopled spaceflights to the International Space Station, since most of the debris is located at higher altitudes, the junk can pose a risk to commercial and research flights that need to fly through the debris field. Currently, there is no economically viable method for cleaning up the debris.
If the original unit is fully paid off, the cost of electricity after retrofit could be slightly less to somewhat more than that for a new purpose-built PC plant with CO2 capture based on the new capital required 43, 44 . However, an operating plant will usually have some residual value, particularly if flue gas clean-up technology has recently been added and the reduction in plant efficiency and output, increased on-site space requirements, and unit downtime are all complex factors not fully accounted for in this analysis. For smaller, older units, rebuilding the entire boiler and power generation sections or replacing them with IGCC (repowering) may be the best alternatives 44, 45 . Generally, the cost of CO2 avoided is expected to be 30-40 higher than for a purpose-built capture-plant. For example, an MEA retrofit of a supercritical PC is projected to cost almost as much as a new unit on a kWe basis from an Alstom retrofit design study 43 . Retrofit capture costs have been...
High loadings of arsenic, cadmium, and lead may pose a direct risk to returning residents, first responders, and recovery workers. Persons may be exposed to these contaminants while trying to recover items from damaged homes, or while trying to clean up and renovate the homes. Based on the above data, it is also evident that safety warnings and bulletins based solely on measured exterior sediment concentrations may under-predict the real exposure of toxic metals to returning residents.
Bush, in campaigning for president, was asked at one point what he would do about global warming and responded I'll tell you one thing I'm not going to do is I'm not going to let the U.S. carry the burden for cleaning up the world's air, like the Kyoto treaty would have done.''11 Thus, the administration has been fairly consistent in expressing the view that the U.S. has no obligation to live up to the accord or even to sign onto it, and at least one reason given for this is that such a scheme is not 'fair' to the U.S. My claim is that maybe it is fair, maybe it is not. But this issue is beside the point in determining the U.S.'s level of obligation in meeting emissions standards set out in agreements such as the Kyoto Accord.
One can conclude that for the present the probability of an oil spill in the vicinity of New Zealand's Subantarctic islands is extremely remote, and that clean-up intervention would only be warranted in most exceptional circumstances. There were no reported oil or other pollution incidents during exploratory drilling around this region.
Accidents are not only much more likely to happen in the Arctic's supremely challenging natural environment, but are also far more difficult to respond to. Environmentalists point to all sorts of dangers, such as a severe shortage of natural light in winter, extreme cold and high winds that would make it extremely difficult to respond to an oil spill should it ever happen. 'The Arctic offers the highest level of ecological sensitivity and the lowest level of capacity to clean up after an accident', as James Leaton, an adviser to the WWF, has said. 'This combination makes it unacceptable to expose the Arctic to an unfettered scramble for oil.'18
Life and property damage if a hurricane comes ashore and storm surges flood coastal areas. Because of the extreme danger to life and the fact that it costs so much to clean up after the devastation of a hurricane, it is vital to take measures to avoid contributing to increases in temperature and global warming. Hurricane Andrew, for example, had 64 fatalities and cost 43.7 billion Ivan had 124 fatalities and cost 14.2 billion and Katrina had 1,836 fatalities and cost 125 billion.
The principal processing steps include (i) general cleaning and dirt removal (ii) removal of leaves, skin, and seeds (iii) blanching (iv) washing and cooling (v) packaging and (vi) clean-up (US-AEP 1997). Waste includes peelings, stems, seeds, shells, etc. and products that are off-spec, damaged, out-of-date, or returned. Reduce waste by using air flotation units to remove debris from raw fruits and vegetables. In addition, try to wash, grade, and trim crops in the field so that the waste can biodegrade in nature rather than becoming a solid waste problem in buildings. This type of waste can be reused as animal feed or converted to compost, mulch, or soil conditioners. The principal steps in processing livestock include (1) rendering and bleeding (2) scalding and or skin removal (3) internal organ evisceration (4) washing, chilling, and cooling (5) packaging and (6) clean-up (US-AEP 1997). Waste includes carcasses, hides, hoofs, heads, feathers, manure, offal, viscera, bones, fat and...
The Willamette River was once one of the nation's most grossly polluted waterways because of raw sewage discharges and inadequate levels of municipal and industrial waste treatment. Since the late 1920s, when a survey found that nearly half of the citizens of Portland were in favor of antipollution laws, public opinion in Oregon has strongly favored regulatory controls on wastewater discharges to clean up the Willamette River. As a result of strong legislative actions with overwhelming public support, the cleanup has become a major national environmental success. In particular, Oregon's legislative actions mandating a minimum level of secondary waste treatment have played an important role in restoring the ecological balance of the Willamette.
On the basis of reports indicating that pollution in this reach of the Connecticut River was endangering the health and welfare of persons in Connecticut, the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare convened a conference under Section 8 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S. C. 466g et seq.) in 1963 to investigate the pollution of the Connecticut River in Massachusetts and Connecticut (See Appendix A-2). This conference documented the appalling water quality of the Connecticut River and initiated strategies to begin to clean up the river (Kittrell, 1963). By the early 1960s, the steadily increasing public concern regarding water pollution issues resulted in organized planning for implementation of primary and secondary wastewater treatment in several municipalities, including Hartford, Connecticut.
Documents pertaining to conferences of an interstate body of water, and a state and federal effort to make or keep it clean. Documents and dates contained in the file concern the administrative aspects of enforcement, the social and economic forces acting both for and against clean-up, the development and application of rules for establishing maintaining clean water conditions, and the monitoring and testing of the water.
Been converted to new uses without cleaning up what lies underground. According to the advocacy group Zero Waste America, It is not unusual to find old landfills or randomly buried hazardous and non-hazardous waste under new or old homes, on farmland, or on commercial property in cities, suburbs, and rural areas. 5 These sites may still be leaking toxins into ground-water and air, or otherwise polluting the environment, including the farms, homes, offices, or stores that may now be perched on top of them. The only way to tell for sure that a site is safe is to conduct environmental testing of the soil and air.
The peroxygen bleaches are forecast to grow rapidly, for both environmental and technical reasons, as regulatory pressures drive the institutional and industrial market away from chlorine bleaches and toward the peroxygen ones. The Clean Water Act amendments are requiring lower levels of trihalomethanes (products of reaction of organics and chlorine) in wastewaters. Expensive systems may be needed to clean up effluents, or the industrial users of chlorine bleaches will have to pay higher and higher surcharges to municipalities for handling chlorinecontaining wastewaters that are put into sewers. Current and expected changes in bleaching materials for various segments of the detergent industry are but part of sweeping changes to come due to environmental concerns and responses to efforts to improve the world environment.
Personnel most frequently responding to hurricane-related events included company response teams (n 128) and hospitals or poison control centers (n 22). Other responders included fire departments (n 8), law enforcement officials (n 7), certified HazMat teams (n 5), third-party clean-up contractors (n 5), emergency medical services (n 4), environmental agencies (n 2), and departments of public works (n 1).
Removal actions are short-term cleanup actions that usually address problems only at the surface of a site. They are conducted in response to an emergency situation (e.g., to avert an explosion, to clean up a hazardous waste spill, or to stabilize a site until a permanent remedy can be found). Removal actions are limited to 12 months duration or 2 million in expenditures, although in certain cases these limits may be extended. Removals may occur at any point in time after the PA has been conducted.
EPA is also placing an increasing emphasis on making the RCRA hazardous waste program more risk based and results based (i.e., ensuring that the regulations correspond to the level of risk posed by the hazardous waste being regulated and that technicalities will not interfere with the ultimate goals for a site). This approach is particularly valuable for the cleanup of contaminated sites. Placing excessive regulation on sites whose contamination poses low risks to human health and the environment may create disincentives for cleanup. Focusing regulations on risk and results would allow states greater flexibility in determining the appropriate way to clean up sites contaminated with relatively small quantities of hazardous waste.
For practitioners of in situ technologies, note that U.S. EPA has issued a policy statement that reinjection of contaminated groundwater is allowed under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)35,36 as long as certain conditions are met. This policy is intended to apply to remedies involving in situ bioremediation and other forms of in situ treatment. Under this policy, groundwater may be reinjected if it is treated aboveground prior to reinjection. Treatment may be by a pump-and-treat system or by the addition of amendments meant to facilitate subsurface treatment. Also, the treatment must be intended to substantially reduce hazardous constituents in the groundwa-ter (either before or after reinjection) the cleanup must be protective of human health and the environment and the injection must be part of a response action intended to clean up the environment.37
High levels of heavy metals and some other elements (such as lead, copper, arsenic and antimony) are toxic to most organisms. There are microorganisms which can tolerate these elements and may even use them in their metabolism. These can be useful for cleaning up polluted areas. There are also microorganisms that can utilise any form of naturally occurring organic compounds which derive from biological activity. Microbes which degrade petroleum, and other types of hydrocarbon deposits, may be a nuisance under some circumstances, but are useful for cleaning up spills. Not all organic compounds are metabolised by microorganisms. Some of human origin (such as plastics, detergents and pesticides) are not degraded and thus accumulate in the environment, often with harmful effects.
A purely mechanical loss process that is thought to have been particularly important on Mars, and must also have occurred on Earth to some extent in the early life of the Solar System, is impact erosion. This is the atmospheric loss that occurs when a planet is bombarded with one or more large meteorites, particularly when the blow is oblique, directing the energy of the blast through the atmosphere and out into space. Clearly the actual mass of gas removed depends on the size and frequency of the colliding objects as well as the geometry of the collision and the mass of the planet, with more material being removed from a smaller planet, because of its smaller gravitational field. Thus impact erosion is relatively inefficient on Earth and Venus, while the impact of a sufficiently large and fast object (more than 3 km across and travelling at least 14 km s) will create a plume on Mars that expands faster than the escape velocity and that could sweep away much of the atmosphere at a...
Both RCRA and CERCLA contain provisions that allow U.S. EPA to require persons contributing to an imminent hazard to take the necessary actions to clean up releases. RCRA's imminent and substantial endangerment provision addresses nonhazardous as well as hazardous solid waste releases. The authority under CERCLA is essentially the same, except that CERCLA's authority to abate an imminent or substantial danger to public health or the environment is limited to hazardous substance releases. In an enforcement action, the RCRA and CERCLA imminent hazard provisions may be used in tandem to ensure adequate protection of human health and the environment.
There are a number of possible effluents shown on the flow diagram for process F (Fig. 6). However, a survey of the industry showed that most operating plants either recycled any wastewater to extinction or used dry clean-up processes. Occasionally, water will be used for clean-up.
RCRA's TSDF standards also include provisions to protect groundwater and air resources from hazardous waste contamination. RCRA requires owners and operators of land-based units (i.e., land treatment units, landfills, surface impoundments, and waste piles) to monitor the groundwater below their TSDF for possible contamination, and clean up any discovered contamination.
Paradoxically, any abrupt, all-out action to roll back both the greenhouse and smokestack emissions of the industrial era would have the effect of intensifying the greenhouse warming, rather than reducing it. If we stopped putting any SO2 in the atmosphere today, the sulfate aerosols now there would rain out within a few weeks, removing their cooling effect and thereby causing some amount of warming almost immediately. But if we stopped putting CO2 in the atmosphere today, it would take more than a century for half of the industrial-era CO2 excess now in the atmosphere to be taken up in the deep ocean. With the industrial cooling effect quickly removed but the warming effect still in place, climate would warm. In addition, for at least a few decades, the unrealized greenhouse warming that is still in the pipeline in response to past greenhouse-gas increases would continue to kick in, pushing temperatures even higher. It's strange, but true by cleaning up all our industrial emissions,...
Because estrogenic mycotoxins usually occur at microgram per kilogram (mg kg) levels there is special interest in analytical procedures for reliable detection of zearalenone and its metabolites between 10 and 100 mg kg. In response to the risk of a great economic loss to the industry and the threat to human health as a result of exposure to zearalenone, several methods have been developed for the quantification of zearalenone and its metabolites in different foods, feeds, animal tissues, blood and urine. Detailed reviews have been given by Steyn et al. 1991 Betina 1993 Frisvad and Thrane 1993 Scott 1993 Steyn 1995 and Lawrence and Scott 2000. The determination of zearalenone in cereals can be divided into five steps grinding of the sample, extraction of the sample, clean-up, separation and detection.
Treatment may involve more exotic processes for cleaning up or using contaminated wastes. Many shop wastes can be cleaned up using activated carbon filtration, biological treatment, and extraction. Some wastes can be put to good use as a fuel source for on-site heating units.
Spills are due to accidental or inadvertent discharges usually occurring during transfer operations or due to equipment failures. Spilled paint and the resulting clean up wastes are usually discharged to the wastewater treatment system or directly drummed for disposal. If the plant has floor drains, large quantities of water are used to clean up water-based paint spills. Dry cleaning methods (using sawdust) are employed for cleaning of solvent-containing spills or for water-based spills where floor drains are not available. Source reduction methods are similar to those for off-spec paint, and include increased automation* better worker supervision and equipment maintenance. Also useful are dry cleanup methods such as sawdust and mopping in which the waste is not discharged to drains. By closing floor drains, employees are discouraged from grabbing a hose and washing down the area (Wapora 1975, USEPA 1979). In addition, a large decrease in wastewater is achieved since the floors cannot...
In August 1974, following the grounding of the VLCC Metula, over 400,000 barrels of light Arabian Crude were released into the Straits of Magellan. There was no clean-up response, and approximately 250 km of shoreline were contaminated. The environmental impact was considerable and included destruction of a tern (Sterna hirundinaceae) breeding colony which had not re-established 5 years after the event (Guzman and Campodonico, 1980). On the other hand, kelp (Macrocystis yyrifera) beds were little affected. Extensive ashphaltic pavements persist to this day, with some samples showing little evidence of weathering (Gundlach et al., 1982 Owens et al., 1987). have a short life expectancy on either beaches or rocky shores (pers. observ.). Whilst minor oil spills occur from time to time, clean-up response is quick, environmental impacts appear minimal, and the visual evidence seldom persists (Fig. 11.10).
With predictions of world shortages of fossil oil energy and energy use-induced climate changes, organic farming should be considered as a measure to mitigate these problems, but both organic and conventional producers will have to modify their approaches, adopt new technology and varieties in order to face the challenges. However, the type and extent of conversion from conventional to low-input and organic production systems should be carefully evaluated and matched with other environmental and socio-economic consequences of such conversion. Analysing agricultural system efficiency is very complex. Account needs to be taken of the costs of productivity losses due to erosion and declining fertility pesticide poisonings and associated chronic health problems, costs of developing new pesticides, antibiotics and medicines due to chemical resistance in plants, animals and micro-organisms transportation of non-renewable fossil inputs and fuel farm subsidies and implications for taxpayers,...
Responsibility for securing suitable habitat was not, in fact, TPF's it belonged to the Service and its advisory body, the ART. As Cyndi Kuehler put it, Cleaning up the habitat is way beyond TPF's role. We're a husbandry operation. We raise birds and release them. Shortly after that, the birds become the Service's responsibility. TPF was responsible for breeding the birds and for keeping them safe within a certain window of time after their release. Once outside this, the birds came under the jurisdiction of the Service and, by association, the ART. All the 'alala had died outside the range of TPF's responsibility. Technically, they had died on the Service's watch. This made it difficult but not impossible to place blame directly on TPF for their deaths.
Many more things can be done here are just a few. The use of dry cleaning, without chemicals, aids in reducing water discharges to the sewer. Using vacuum trucks to clean up spills, then charging this recovered material to slop oil tanks, reduces the discharge of both oil and water to the wastewater system. Process units should be curbed to prevent the contamination of clean runoff with oily storm runoff and to prevent spills from spreading widely. Sewers should be flushed regularly to prevent the buildup of material, eliminating sudden surges of pollutants during heavy rains. Collection vessels should be provided whenever maintenance is performed on liquid processing units, to prevent accidental discharges to the sewers.
Delaware, according to records of the Environmental Protection Agency, is one of the nation's leaders in releases of mercury, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, and vinyl chloride, all among the most toxic substances released by industry. Among the companies most frequently named as the leading polluters in the United States, more than 50 percent of them now operate, or have operated, in Delaware. The state spent more than 29 million in 2007 cleaning up contaminated sites.
The Commonwealth of Kentucky encourages controlling pollutants that accelerate global warming and climate through the KY Excel Program, a voluntary leadership program. The goal of this program is to promote cooperation among individuals, state and local government, and the business community by recognizing significant efforts made toward environmental progress in Kentucky. Members are required to conduct at least one environment-related project each year in the fields of conservation, education, energy efficiency, financial support, mentoring and technical assistance, performance improvement, public health, restoration, and waste reduction. Specific projects have dealt with promoting plans to get motor vehicles off the road through carpooling, walking, and biking encouraging the use of vehicles that use alternative fuels taking showers instead of tub baths cleaning up dump sites and collecting and recycling wastes.
Phytoremediation is the process by which plants are used to treat or stabilize contaminated soils and groundwater (USEPA, 2000). The technology is complex and is only introduced here (Lasat, 2002). The technology has emerged as a response to the clean-up efforts for sites contaminated with toxic and hazardous wastes. Contaminants that have been successfully remediated with plants include petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, metals, radionuclides, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Glass (1999) estimated that in 1998 at
Lower in the Arctic areas than in the respective provinces. Mining and energy corporation activities in the Canadian North are of fundamental importance for Canadian economic development. Canada has placed emphasis on sustainable development and cleaning up after mining pollution (and today has laws and a juridical system to secure sustainable mining and energy production) as well as on a comprehensive number of land claims settlements and an increasing awareness of indigenous peoples' rights. In both Canada and the rest of the Arctic world, much attention has been given to the creation and economic development of Nunavut, and it is likely that this model will be the learning case for economic development in the Canadian North in the coming years.
In general, Norway and Russia have a long history of working together in the Barents Sea, and this means that both have a strong interest in resolving their border disputes amicably. Examples of this close cooperation are numerous and wide-ranging. In August 2000, Norwegian divers and experts had tried desperately hard, if unsuccessfully, to save the lives of 118 sailors on board the stricken Russian submarine Kursk, and each of the rescuers were personally thanked by President Putin for their gallant but doomed efforts. And in the summer of 2008, the foreign ministers of both countries opened a new laboratory in Murmansk that Russian and Norwegian scientists were operating together to analyse oil samples and use their findings to help clean up any spillages.12 Their respective coast guards also constantly share information and pool their limited resources to fight the threat of overfishing in 2008, the fisheries minister in Oslo, Helga Pedersen, publicly praised the stringent efforts...
The region was a natural wilderness and a habitat for all sorts of wildlife, including salmon, sea otters, seals and numerous seabirds, whose populations suffered appallingly from the spillage. And although thousands of local people worked round the clock to clean up the damage, an independent study by American government scientists, undertaken in 2007, concluded that nearly two decades on, the soil on the shoreline still contained at least 26,000 gallons of oil that 'was disappearing only very slowly, at an annual rate of around four per cent'.17 Perhaps the only consolation was that 80 per cent of the cargo stayed on board the crippled ship, which narrowly avoided capsizing.
Even getting to the nearest town, Valdez, was extremely difficult (Map 2). Ordinarily handling only about 10 flights a day, its tiny airstrip had to be specially fitted with a temporary air traffic control tower to manage a sudden, dramatic increase to between 700 and 1,000 daily flights. Larger planes, carrying vital clean-up equipment, were forced to fly much further afield and their deliveries were then put on trucks to undertake an arduous 9-hour journey to the disaster site, although many roads were closed due to bad weather and avalanches. Valdez is, in any case, only small, with a population of just 4,000, and the sudden influx of a huge number of relief workers, officials and reporters made matters very much worse. Besides a desperate shortage of accommodation, it also had a very limited telephone network, and in the days before mobile phones, this meant that urgent calls to the outside world, requesting resources that were vital to the relief effort, simply failed to get...
In October 2005, long-term remediation was initiated with oversight by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, including clean up on land, residential areas, and non-commercial waterways. Approximately 1,800 affected properties in an area of about one square mile were identified through a house-to-house visual survey conducted from the street. The Environmental Protection Agency classified contamination on 114 properties as heavy (more than 50 of the yard, sidewalks, and home were covered with oil), 286 properties as medium (about 50 of the yard and sidewalks were covered in oil), and the balance as light to oil line only (small percent of oil was visible on horizontal surfaces or a bathtub ring of visible product band approximately 3 to 6 inches wide was seen on the residence, with no visible oil on the yard, sidewalks, and home (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2005c). However, some affected properties...
Following the Love Canal disaster, Congress also passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) to clean up past hazardous waste disposal sites. The act was funded by corporate taxes in order to create a government fund, which came to be known as Superfund, to pay for cleaning hazardous sites. Under the law, abandoned and particularly dangerous waste sites may qualify as Superfund sites, eligible for government cleanup. CERCLA was reauthorized in 1986 with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.
Almost three decades after Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) to clean up the nation's most dangerous hazardous waste dumps, the nation still has a long list of Superfund megasites places that are so polluted with chemicals and toxins that experts expect they will cost more than 50 million each to clean up. As of 2007, 154 locations had been named megasites, and the list continues to grow as more mines, landfills, and factories qualify. One of these sites is in southern California, off the Palos Verdes Peninsula, where a large
The contractor should wet the asbestos-containing material with a hand sprayer. The sprayer should provide a fine mist, and the material should be thoroughly dampened, but not dripping wet. Wet fibers do not float in the air as readily as dry fibers and will be easier to clean up. The contractor should add a small amount of a low sudsing dish or laundry detergent to improve the penetration of the water into the material and reduce the amount of water needed.
RCRA Subtitle I regulates USTs that contain petroleum or hazardous substances. A major objective of Subtitle I is to prevent and clean up releases from tanks. Under Subtitle I, U.S. EPA has developed performance standards for new tanks, upgrading requirements for existing tanks, and regulations to prevent, detect, and clean up releases at all UST sites. State UST programs may be approved to operate in lieu of the federal program.
Indiana is urban, but the iron, steel, and oil companies that swell the economy of the state tend to be located in smaller cities. Indiana ranks 15th in the United States in population. The combination of a large urban population and heavy industry means that much of the state faces major challenges to protecting the environment from global warming and climate change. Educating the public is the major environmental focus. Government actions include emission reduction programs designed to reduce smog, soot, dust, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead. Air quality monitors have been placed throughout Indiana. Improving waste management is also a priority, and Indiana is concentrating on cleaning up contaminated sites, leaking underground storage tanks, spills, landfills, and open dumps. Environmental activists are pressuring the government to initiate policies promoting sustainable energy and to withdraw support for new coal-fired power plants in the state.
The massive spill triggered the largest spill-related clean-up effort in history. Nonetheless, it soiled 1500 miles (2400 km) of pristine coastline, killed thousands of marine mammals and shore birds, affected the lucrative Alaskan commercial fisheries, and spawned legal battles that are still ongoing. Exxon, Inc. paid over 1 billion in fines and penalties and was assessed what was at the time the largest punitive damage award in history, 5 billion. Years later, debate still rages over the long-term effects of the spill and clean-up efforts on the Prince William Sound ecosystem, on populations of fish, mammals, and birds, and on the Alaskan people and communities directly affected by the spill. A storm blew into Prince William Sound on the third day after the spill, forcing skimmer boats and containment boom crews to retreat. By this time, the oil slick covered more than 100 square miles and began to reach nearby coastlines. By the time the crude oil reached...
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