The Church Growth Kit

Ministry Letters

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General Assessment of Church Statements on Nuclear Issues

To be worthwhile, a Church statement on any matter should be accurate, balanced, well-informed and directed to a matter of public concern in a way that commands attention and respect, makes a specifically Christian contribution, corrects existing misunderstandings and makes specific recommendations for the direction of future policies. By this standard the Church statements mentioned are, with a few exceptions, deplorably inadequate. Obviously they contain incidental remarks of value, but taken as a whole they are little more than an uncritical echo of the anti-nuclear campaign, embellished with a veneer of religiosity. No one with any knowledge of the real situation would take them seriously for an instant. They serve only to bring discredit on their authors and the Churches that issue them. It is rather easy to reconstruct the way statements on nuclear power, and indeed on many other subjects, come to be issued. The subject was recognised as one of importance, with moral...

The Contribution of the Churches

It is a characteristic of human beings that we tend to take effective action only when it is too late. The problem of continuing to supply industrial countries with enough electrical energy to power their various activities has been evident for years and many scientists have issued statements warning everyone of the crisis that will soon arise as the oil and then coal are exhausted. Details of the technical aspects of this problem have been given in Chapter 3. Here we are concerned with the moral problems. Many Churches have rightly considered that this is a moral as well as a technical problem, and have organised conferences and issued statements. In this section these official reactions of various Church authorities are summarised and reviewed. In addition to the official statements many individuals have formed groups and issued statements of their own. These have often influenced the official Church actions. The role of the Churches in the energy debate has been considered in an...

London Smog Sulfur Dioxide Acidic Aerosols and Soot

It is this horrid Smoake which obscures our Church and makes our Palaces look old, which fouls our Cloth and corrupts the Waters, so as the very Rain, and refreshing Dews which fall in the several Seasons, precipitate to impure vapour, which, with its black and tenacious quality, spots and contaminates whatever is exposed to it.

Proglacial and icemarginal processes

Rapid landscape adjustment following glacier retreat may include both sediment redistribution and rock-slope instability. The processes whereby such rapid readjustments occur have been termed 'paraglacial' (Church & Ryder 1972). Essentially the paraglacial concept is based on the premise that recently deglaciated terrain is often susceptible to rapid modification by subaerial agents because withdrawal of the glacier may leave rock slopes and sediments in an initially unstable or metastable condition (Ballantyne 2002). A specific example discussed by Mercier & Laffly (2005) is fluvial reworking of sediment, in this case in a coastal area of Spitsbergen, where rapid glacier retreat has occurred since the Little Ice Age.

Strengthening User Rights for Forest Restoration in Northeast Highlands of Ethiopia122

The Meket district in the North Wollo administrative zone of Ethiopia ranges in altitude from 2000 to 3400 m above sea level and has a mix of agroclimatic zones. Its inhabitants are almost wholly dependent on agriculture. As rising numbers of people have put more pressure on the land, fallow periods have shortened, and continuous ploughing has become commonplace. Local people say that within a generation, there has been dramatic deforestation, and the grazing has declined in both quantity and quality. Expanding cultivation and increasing demand for wood have left even the steepest slopes unprotected. Only about 8 percent of the total area remains under forest. Much of the rainfall is lost through runoff, causing severe soil erosion and floods. Indigenous trees are not commonly allowed to regenerate (except on some church lands), and efforts to plant trees have had little impact. The Ethiopian people have had negative experiences of land reallocation over the last 20 years, and are...

Box 25 SRESbased sealevel scenarios

At the global level, simple models representing the expansion of sea water and melting sliding of land-based ice sheets and glaciers were used in the TAR to obtain estimates of globally averaged mean sea-level rise across the SRES scenarios, yielding a range of 0.09 to 0.88 m by 2100 relative to 1990 (Church et al., 2001). This range has been reassessed by WG I, yielding projections relative to 1980-1999 for the six SRES marker scenarios of B1 0.18 to 0.38 m, A1T 0.20 to 0.45 m, B2 0.20 to 0.43 m, A1B 0.21 to 0.48 m, A2 0.23 to 0.51 m, and A1FI 0.26 to 0.59 m (Meehl et al., 2007). Thermal expansion contributes about 60 to 70 to these estimates. Projections are smaller than given in the TAR, due mainly to improved estimates of ocean heat uptake but also to smaller assessed uncertainties in glacier and ice cap changes. However, uncertainties in carbon cycle feedbacks, ice flow processes, and recent observed ice discharge rates are not accounted for due to insufficient understanding...

Instaar University of Colorado Campus Box 450 Boulder CO 803090450 USA

Glaciers are becoming 'warmer', responding faster to ongoing change in climate, contributing more to the global water cycle and receding at an accelerating rate. Glacier sensitivity is the key parameter which links changes in climate, glacier volume and the eustatic component of sea-level rise. To show the relation between these changes in the Northern Hemisphere, where such data are more complete and accurate, I used observational data of air temperature and glacier mass balance over the years 1961-1998. The last decade of the twentieth century was the warmest over the previous hundreds of years (Mann & Jones, 2003). The global water cycle has accelerated in terms of increases in precipitation rate and rise in sea level (RSL) (Church et al., 2001b). The eustatic component of RSL has increased and the source of this must be continental (Miller & Douglas, 2003). We have attributed this continental source to the ongoing process of volume losses by mountain and subpolar glaciers (Meier...

Climate change and coastlines

Climate change is adding to coastal stresses in many ways. The rise in sea level during the 20th century is estimated to have been near 0.2 m (about 8 inches) (Douglas, 1991, 1997 Peltier, 2001 Church and White, 2006). Projections are that, as a result of thermal expansion and glacier and ice sheet melting, human-induced changes in the climate could result in an additional rise in global sea level of as much as 0.5 m (about 20 inches) and possibly much more by 2100 (IPCC, 2007). Satellite altimeter data for the past 15 years indicate that there has been a 50 per cent increase in the rate of sea level rise over this time (Church and White, 2006) as compared to the historic rate estimated from older tide gauge data. This rate of sea level rise will accelerate the loss of coastal wetlands and erosion if it is maintained.

Regional and Local Scales Sea Level Rise Predictions

Scaling down global climate predictions to the regional level is a key aspect of current research. Efforts have begun to investigate regional differences in sea level rise (Church et al., 2004). At the regional and local level, relative rates of sea level rise are influenced not only by regional ocean basin differences but also by local vertical land movements. Key processes affecting vertical land movements are glacial isostatic adjustment (Miller and Douglas, 2006) and crustal deformation (Adger 2000 Verdonck, 2006). In addition to regional differences, the likelihood of future events may not be accurately predicted by probabilities derived from the past. The current techniques developed for dealing with uncertainty and natural variability will not necessarily be effective when faced with future changes. For example, the Anzali Lagoon Project Management Experts (ALPME) use historic analysis to create floodplain maps in the study region and determine base flood elevations...

Mormon perspective Joseph Cannon

The Mormon Church is a lay-leader church it does not yet have an official position on climate change. Those of my faith believe that the Scriptures call us to fulfill our obligations to fellow man and to the environment. In writing his recent book, entitled The Creation, E. O. Wilson indicated that his purpose was to involve religious people in environmental issues. Our interpretation of the scriptures is that we have a duty to take care of the Earth we do not believe there is a basis in the scriptures for taking the view that the end is coming so our stewardship responsibilities can be ignored. a social and a moral problem. This understanding is long lasting, and as a result, many in the Church are committed to the environment and their responsibilities of stewardship.

Catholic perspective Walt Grazer

While some religious communities tend not to make public comments, the Catholic community tends to be more outspoken. Both within the Catholic community and operating through ecumenical and interfaith activities, the Church is frequently speaking out regarding the moral and ethical aspects of matters affecting society. To deal with climate change, the Catholic community is endeavoring to have the issue integrated into everyone's life and thinking through their local parish. We are encouraging mobilization for advocacy at the local level, doing so by creating a small grants program. With its broad international presence, the Catholic bishops are increasingly engaging on these issues with their colleagues across the global community and especially in Latin America. Among other activities, a joint policy framework has been developed, entitled 'Looking Forward Catholic Coalition on Climate Change', which is part of the Catholic effort in cooperation with the National Religious Partnership...

Presbyterians move toward climate neutrality Pam McVety

At its General Assembly during the summer of 2006, the Presbyterian Church USA passed a resolution asking its 2.4 million members to each do their part to combat climate change impacts by going carbon neutral (see Carbon neutrality requires that energy use that releases CO2 into the atmosphere be reduced and that carbon offsets be purchased to compensate for those CO2 (or other greenhouse gas) emissions that could not be eliminated.

Permeable Reactive Barriers

Although detailed comparative evaluations of the aerobic degradation rates of other fuel oxygenates have not been performed to date, the aerobic biodegradation rates of TAME, ETBE, DIPE, TBA, and TAA were observed to be of the same order of magnitude as the aerobic degradation rate of MTBE in one research study using a mixed culture.63 Together with the similarity of product chemical structure, these results suggest that the same or similar enzyme systems and pathways are responsible for the biodegradation of these oxygenates and that the bioremediation of fuel oxygenates other than MTBE therefore has similar constraints.24 Church and Tratnyek63 proposed a degradation pathway of MTBE and other oxygenates as shown in Figure 24.5.

The Modern Assault On Nature The Making Of Ecocide

Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World System Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century, vol. 1 (New York Academic Press, 1974), p. 121, Wolf, Europe and the People without History, p. 158. Robert Joseph Kerner, The Urge to the Sea The Course of Russian History. The Role of Rivers, Portages, Ostrogs, Monasteries, and Furs (Berkeley University of California Press, 1942), p. 8, Wolf, Europe and the People without History, pp. 158-9. Tithes refers to the tenth part of goods or income paid as a tax for the support of the church or any tax or levy, especially of one-tenth. Wolf, Europe and the People without History, p. 159.

Ecoactivism Ecology as Religion

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) claim - rather boldly - that Jesus was a vegetarian and that meat-eaters commit a holocaust on their plate (http ). Their spectacular events to persuade people from wearing animal furs often enlist pop-stars and society persons. Supporting at least some of their ideas, the Anglican Society for the Welfare of Animals issues information, composes prayers, and organizes animal blessings in churches on the feast of St. Francis of Assisi. A generation ago, Albert Schweitzer developed his theology of nonviolence on the foundation of the holiness of all forms of life.

Intervention Measures and Public Outreach

Communities whenever excessive heat warnings are issued by the local or regional weather service or health department. For intervention activities to be successful, there must be close stakeholder interaction between a number of agencies assigned with increasing the well-being of the local population. Some of these include, beyond the local weather service, the department of health, emergency management, local utility companies, institutions that house the elderly, police, civic associations, and church groups. Intervention also implies getting the message to the people even if extensive intervention activities are developed by a particular locale, they are less effective if people are unaware of the existence of an EHE, and the proper response to such an event. Thus, outreach and message delivery are major components to intervention, and sometimes these aspects is ignored.

Response of the polar ice sheets to future climatic warming

These responses should be considered in addition to the long-term background trend as a result of ongoing adjustment to past environmental changes as far back as the last glacial period. The IPCC Third Assessment Report estimates the latter contribution to be between 0 and 0.5 mmyr-1 of equivalent sea-level rise for both polar ice sheets combined (Church et al., 2001a). Three-dimensional modelling studies which analyse the imbalance pattern resulting for the present-day in glacial cycle simulations typically find a long-term sea-level evolution of between 1 and 4 cm per century for Antarctica but a negligible contribution of only a few millimetres per century for Greenland (Huybrechts & de Wolde, 1999 Huybrechts & Le Meur, 1999). Another component to the current and future evolution of ice sheets are the effects of'unexpected ice-dynamic responses' which may or may not be related to contemporary climate changes, and which find their origin in variations at the ice-sheet base or at the...

The Opposition to Nuclear Power

Many arguments were used against nuclear power. One of the most plausible began by pointing out, quite rightly, that there are still many dangers and uncertainties associated with it. Would it not therefore be prudent to declare a moratorium on future development until it can be shown to be perfectly safe It is such a promising source of energy that it is important to avoid undue haste that might do great harm. What could be more prudent and statesmanlike to wait for five years and see if by then it has been made perfectly safe This is a very attractive idea, but it is simply a delaying tactic masquerading as concern for humanity. Many people, including Church leaders and the World Council of Churches, fell into this trap. If this argument had been accepted, then after five years it would be repeated again and a further moratorium proposed. The opponents of nuclear power would never have accepted that it had finally been proved safe. By that time the technological expertise would have...

Elements of Observing System 321 Tide Gauges

Estimates of twentieth century sea level rise are primarily based on the historical tide gauge data maintained by the PSMSL. Church et al. (2004) estimated monthly distributions of large scale sea level variability and change over the period 1950-2000 using historical tide gauge data and altimeter data sets. Annual averages of the global mean sea level (millimeter) as derived from analyses of tide gauges shows a global rise of 1.8 0.3 mm year during 1950-2000. Tide gauges have also been used to monitor the stability of satellite altimeter sea surface height observations, long term sea level trends at coastal stations, navigation, hydrography, flood warning, tsunami warning and other coastal engineering applications.

Design Of The Advanced Water Treatment Plant

Conventional Wastewater Plant

The AWTP was commissioned in May 1998, and comprises a 350 m3 d 'Conventional' stream (based on the flowsheet of Church Wilne WTW) running parallel to a 350 m3 d 'Membrane' stream (Figure 1). Both streams can also make use of ozone and powdered activated carbon (PAC) and the modular nature of the individual processes allows them to be interchanged. Thus, the initial direct comparison will be followed by the optimisation of a process for the River Trent, possibly by combining processes from the two flowsheets. - Church Wilne Reservoir (impounded Derwent) - River Derwent (pumped from the Church Wilne WTW reservoir intake line) The conventional treatment stream is based on the Church Wilne WTW flowsheet and comprises clarification, followed by four rapid gravity sand filters (RGF) and four granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbers.

Upscaling from local to global scale

The work by Oerlemans & Fortuin (1992) and Oerlemans (1993c) is very important as it informed the 1996 and 2001 assessments of sea-level change by the IPCC (Warrick et al., 1996 Church et al., 2001) and forms the basis for further work. Zuo & Oerlemans (1997) calculate the contribution of glacier melt to sea-level rise since 1865 by applying historic temperature series to the mass-balance sensitivities for the 100 regions, plus four more regions representing sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Gregory & Oerlemans (1998) and van de Wal & Wild (2001) simulate future sea-level rise by applying temperature projections from GCMs to the same 100 glacier regions. Despite the increasing sophistication of these experiments they are still based on results from only 12 glaciers upscaled to 100 regions and their validity rests on the correctness of the upscaling.

Scientific ContnBUTIONS

Galileo was one of the first scientists to state clearly that the laws of nature could be explained mathematically. In his book The Assayer, published in Rome in 1623, Galileo wrote that the universe is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures. Galileo was driven by testing assertions by scientists, philosophers, and religious figures through experimentation and mathematics, and this passion and reason in his character led him to reject many positions of authority, especially in the church. He became a major proponent of the need to separate religion and science. Galileo was instrumental in deriving mathematical relationships between curves, the equations to describe the curves, and relating these to the physical world. For instance, he noted that the parabola describes the path of a projectile moving without the effects of friction, and derived equations to explain this motion. He created standards for length and...

Chamberlin Thomas C 18431928

Chamberlin was born on September 23, 1843. At the time of Chamberlin's birth, his family was living in Mat-toon, southern Illinois, but they soon moved north to Beloit in Wisconsin. The future scientist grew up in a religious family (his father was a Methodist minister), where education was held in high esteem. With his four brothers, Chamberlin attended a preparatory academy, and then Beloit College, where he developed a strong interest in natural science. The young Chamberlin was immediately attracted to geology, in spite of the apparent conflicts with his strong Methodist background. While studying at Beloit College, where he was an outstanding student, Chamberlin directed the church choir.

Nongovernmental Organizations NGOs

Chapter 10, resolution 288 (X) of the UN Charter that an international NGO (INGO) was any international organisation that is not founded by an international treaty. The UN also determined that NGOs should be given suitable arrangements to be consulted on key issues. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), NGOs also include profit making organizations, foundations, educational institutions, churches and other religious groups and missions, medical organizations and hospitals, unions and professional organizations, cooperatives and cultural groups as well as voluntary agencies. Colloquial terminology that identifies different types of NGOs includes the terms INGO, International NGO BINGO, Business NGO RINGO, Religious NGO QANGO, Quasi NGO, and ENGO, Environment NGO. NGOs have wide scope and appeal. RNGOs include the World Council of Churches, Caritas International, the World Jewish Congress, and the International Muslim Union, while examples of...

Misleading and Irresponsible Statements

Conveys a meaning different from what it actually says. The examples given below are taken from statements made by Church and other bodies on nuclear power, but similar ones may be found in other contexts. They include a whole range of statements from those that are just false but plausible to true statements presented in a way that conveys a false impression. Much depends on the context of a statement so, for instance, a cautionary remark in the midst of a balanced discussion is entirely acceptable, but taken out of context may be quite misleading. The falsity of many statements often appears only when numerical data are given, and the difficulty is that many people are unable to understand statistical statements. There are three basic errors underlying most of the statements by the Churches, namely innumeracy, unbalance and the failure to recognise objective truth. So many vital issues can only be settled by numerical estimates of cost, or safety, for example. Relying on rhetoric,...

Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Food Security

Sea levels are projected to rise by about 0.4 m during the 21st century (Church et al., 2001). Rising sea levels are associated with increased flooding, land loss, and salt water intrusions into freshwater aquifers in coastal areas. This increases the value of and competition for land and water resources in noncoastal areas. And resulting decreases in food supplies and increases in food prices hurt consumers. The impact on farm income is less certain. Farm income falls for those whose land is submerged or damaged. Farm income will tend to rise, however, in adjacent areas.

Displaced Populations in Sudan

A study by Kuch (1993) also investigated the food situation of the displaced in Khartoum and found them to be highly vulnerable. People without access to land cannot produce their own food, making them heavily dependent on the market economy. Monetary income is, therefore, crucial to food security in these situations, and people even resort to illegal methods, such as the sale of alcohol, which is punishable with lashes and fines and up to a year imprisonment (Kuch, 1993). Inability to purchase even a single meal a day was frequently experienced. Malnutrition among those under 5 years old was found to double within a year in most settlements. Rations introduced by the Sudan Council of Churches' (SCC) Primary Health Care Program (PHCP) to supplement their diets had to be extended to entire families because sharing of the rations meant that the health status of the under-5-year-olds often did not improve (Kuch, 1993).

Ecocide And Globalization

Neo-liberalism dates back to the liberal economic theory of the nineteenth century, which demanded far-reaching restrictions on the activities of the state in economic matters. Also known as laissez-faire and laissez-passer, it is based on the conviction that humans are active chiefly in their own interests and that there are natural rules which create harmony through the operation of the invisible hand of the market. If individuals were left to themselves to pursue their interests (producing, buying, and selling) then everyone would profit from the result. The laws of supply and demand would ensure the best allocation of results. The laws of supply and demand would ensure the best use of capital and labor. Historically, economic laissez-faire was an expression of a new form of individualism geared to industry, which in the sixteenth century turned against church and state interference in the economy and trade.

Evidence of water mass changes in the Pacific and Indian Oceans

Here we focus on large-scale changes observed in three distinct intermediate water masses of the Pacific and Indian Oceans Sub-Antarctic Mode Water (SAMW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), all of which are key components of the thermohaline circulation in these regions. Typically, we compare observations from the 1960s and 1970s with WOCE hydrographic data from the late 1980s and early 1990s and are therefore describing the observed differences over a period of 20 years or so (Bindoff and Church, 1992 Johnson and Orsi, 1997 Bindoff and McDougall, 2000 Wong et al., 1999). We have based our studies on hydrographic data because they provide concurrent measurements of the two main oceanic variables temperature and salinity. As a result we Along the 43 S parallel between Australia and New Zealand, a repeat of the 1967 SCORPIO section by RV Franklin in 1989-90 showed a strong cooling and freshening signal on density surfaces, with a downward...

University of Reading

THE university OF Reading is located in Reading, England. With a foundation made by joining the School of Art begun in 1860 and the School of Science begun in 1870, Christ Church of Oxford established an extension college in 1892. Funding and expansion ensured success and led to the University of Reading being given a royal charter in 1926. The University of Reading has several educational centers conducting research in a variety of disciplines in the arts, humanities, sciences, and social sciences, including environmental sciences and meteorology.

Deep Ecology Ecofeminism Ecophilosophy

Eco-feminism is a special branch of deep ecology (Adams, 1994). Feminists attribute much of the ecological crisis to the suppression of women in patriarchal culture, responsible for 'The Death of Nature' (Merchant, 1980). From its Western origins, critical of the male-dominated Christian churches, it has branched out also to Asia (Shiva, 1989). By empowering women, it expects to combat violence - including violence against nature - seen as a typical male attitude.

Projected sealevel rise

The most recent data indicate that average sea-level rise is approximately 3.4mm per year, compared to 3.1mm per year between 1993 to 2003, and 1.8mm per year from 1961 to 2003 (Church et al, 2008 Rahmstorf, 2007). Analysis shows that the rate of sea-level rise in the 20th century could be the highest for the past 5000 years, increasing at almost twice as much since 1993 than the average in the past century (ACE CRC, 2008). Like temperature, trends in sea-level rise are at the high end of the IPCC projections (White et al, 2008). Estimates that better reflect potential ice sheet flows are now showing larger projections of sea-level rise. For example, Rahmstorf (2007) projects sea-level rise of between 0.5m to 1.4m above the 1990 level by 2100, which is more than double the IPCC estimate.

Sverdrup Harald Ulrik 18881957

Sverdrup was born on November 15, 1888, in Sogndal, Sogn, Norway, into an ancient and respected family of university lecturers, lawyers, politicians, and Lutheran ministers. His father Johan was a teacher and, following the family tradition, became a Lutheran minister of the State Church of Norway. In 1894, his father became minister in the island district of Solund, about 40 mi. (64 km.) north of Bergen, and then moved to Rennso near Stavanger. In 1908, he became professor of church history in Oslo. Because of his father's different jobs, Sverdrup spent much of his boyhood in various sites in western Norway and was taught by governesses until he was 14 years old. At that age, he went to school in Stavanger. During his adolescence, Sverdrup experienced conflicts between his interest in natural science and the religious background of his family. It was particularly difficult for him to reconcile the concept of evolution with his religious upbringing.

It got cold and they died

The Norwegian Viking's renegade ways were quickly displaced by an uncompromising social structure built on European ideas of respectability and wealth. While Erik held to the ancient Norse pantheon, his wife, his son, and his fellow colonists quickly converted to the new Christian faith. They sent a live polar bear to the King of Norway to induce him to send a bishop. They endowed the bishop with a large, prosperous farm and built a cathedral, churches, and a nunnery, although by the beginning of the fourteenth century, the bishops had found it more convenient to govern the colony from Rome. with the elements, the native Inuit were winning theirs, flourishing in a more mobile and adaptive culture of Arctic hunting. Their toggled harpoons, which open on a hinge after piercing the flesh, allowed the Inuit to successfully hunt seals through the ice during winter. Unlike the wooden Norse boats, the seal skin Inuit kayaks could be lifted and easily moved over the ice jamming the fjords....

Is there a relationship between impacts and other massextinction horizons

To begin with, let us take the Ries Crater of Bavaria, which has a diameter of about 30 km and was formed about 15 million years ago, in the Miocene epoch. Close to the middle of this crater, the rim of which forms a line of hills, is the pretty little town of Nordlingen, which has an excellent museum in its centre devoted to explaining the crater. The characteristic rock produced by the impact is composed of large fragments of what geologists call a breccia, but this particular example is known as suevite. It is exposed on the crater margins in a few quarries but can be most conveniently seen as the building stone of the principal church. According to the Raup curve about 10 per cent of species should have been made extinct for a crater of this size, but no species extinctions are recognizable from the region for either mammals or plants, the two fossil groups that have been studied in the Miocene strata. In other words, while the local area must no doubt have been like a moon...

The imperative of icesheet research

In fact, it is possible that such a period of deglaciation has already begun. Throughout this volume there are documented examples of dramatic glacial retreat in tropical, temperate and polar regions, and in this chapter we will add more examples from Antarctica. But simply cataloguing glacial change as it happens is a very poor tool with which to make predictions, and there is a clear burden on scientists to make realistic and supportable predictions for the future. Every episode of Quaternary deglaciation caused turmoil throughout the Earth System and even minor global deglaciation today would have profound economic and social consequences. For example, currently around ten million people each year suffer from coastal flooding, and accepting the best prediction of sea-level rise (ca. 44cm, Church et al., 2001a), this number is likely to increase to ca. 200 million by 2080 (DETR and The Meteorological Office, 1997). It is, however, arguable that the most potent potential contributor...

Restoring Democracy Media Money Civic Renewal

Defining issues and electing candidates, while many have little or no say. It is time, long past time, to separate money and politics in the same way the founders intended to separate church and state. All federal elections ought to be publicly financed. The corollary is that no elected or appointed official after leaving public office should ever be allowed to hold a paid position with any regulated industry. If public officials face financial destitution as a result of their public service, let us pay them better. But the people's business should not be peddled like beer and SUVs.

Intrumental Records of Sea Level Rise

(Church and White, 2006) in the last half of the 20th century, this increased to approximately 0.07 inches (1.8 millimeters) per year (Miller and Douglas, 2004) and over the past 15 years, the rate of sea level rise has been in excess of 0.12 inches (3 millimeters) per year (Katsman et al., 2008 Vermeer and Rahmstorf, 2009). Ice core records show that atmospheric CO2 concentrations have been rising since about 1830 (see Chapater 6), so sea level and CO2 increases are generally coincident. Clear indications of interan-nual and decadal variability can also be seen in Figure 7.2. Distinguishing the effects of natural climate variability from human-caused warming is one of the challenges of understanding the details of past sea level rise and anticipating its future course. FIGURE 7.2 Annual, global mean sea level as determined by records of tide gauges (red curve with error bars, from Church and White 2006 blue curve, from Holgate and Woodworth 2004 ) and satellite altim-etry (black...

Green companies do better

A sea of change in public attitudes may be setting in. A Campus Climate Neutral Network is springing up on many US campuses and students have been willing to impose modest additional levies on themselves to lower their campus' greenhouse emissions. In June, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church USA passed a resolution asking each of its 2.3 million members to bear 'a bold witness' by leading a carbon neutral lifestyle (Climate Institute, 2006).

Methods Approaches and Outcomes of Genetic Analyses

Historical and geographic patterns of migration can be inferred through genetic data when gene flow is expressed as a migration rate (m). The migration rate is measured as the proportion of haplotypes in a population that are of migrant origin in each generation. Patterns of mutation inheritance are reconstructed according to a phylogenetic gene tree of the haplotypes (one or more uniquely identified gene sequence(s)). Phylogenetics is the branch of science that deals with testing for the relatedness of individuals and heuristically seeks to identify the most parsimonious explanations of inheritance for genetic and morphological attributes we concentrate on the former. The genetic data are sorted as a parsimonious genealogy and allow exploration of populations that became structured through time by geographic proximity, gene flow, and common ancestry. Our selected markers express the molecular past according to their individual rates and modes of mutation. Cytochrome b codes for a...

Suggested Reading

The volume edited by Jopling and MacDonald (1975) deals with most aspects of glaciofluvial sedimentation. Papers by Church and Gilbert (1975) and Boothroyd and Ashley (1975) are of note. Subglacial precipitation of solutes is discussed by Hallet (1975, 1976) and Hallet et al. (1978). Discussion of the characteristics of proximal outwash can be found in Boulton and Eyles (1979), and comprehensive information about the sedimentology and structure of braided outwash rivers can be found in the papers by Miall (1977, 1978). Sedimentation by jokulhlaups is covered in the paper by Maizels (1989). Church, M. and Gilbert, R. (1975) Proglacial fluvial and lacustrine environments, in Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Sedimentation (eds A.V. Jopling and B.C. McDonald) The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication 23, pp. 22-100.

Effectiveness of Seasonal Forecasts and Climate Risk Management

According to Vogel and O'Brien (2006), there is currently a disconnection between the climate information enterprise (e.g. modeling, forecast production, design, user-assessments, user needs and constraints to the uptake of forecast products) and the linkages and interplay with those operating in formal institutions (e.g. Departments of Agriculture, Water Affairs, Social Welfare, etc.) as well as informal institutions (e.g. welfare organizations, church groups, NGOs, humanitarian organizations, etc.). Hence greater attention needs to be given to what infrastructural and institutional advances are necessary to facilitate the use of forecast information within the livelihood strategies prevailing in a given region.


The observations and linkages suggest that critical levels of global warming may occur at even lower greenhouse gas concentrations and or anthropogenic emissions than was considered justified in the IPCC (2001) report. The observed changes in Greenland and Antarctica suggest that a more rapid rise in sea level may be imminent, as has been observed in recent years (Church and White, 2006 Rahmstorf, 2007). Indeed, Rahmstorf et al (2007) find that emissions, global surface temperature and sea level rise are all increasing at rates at the very highest end of the IPCC range. Several of the points above suggest rapidly occurring regional impacts are imminent. Taken together, these recent developments increase the urgency of further improving climate models, and of taking action to reduce emissions in order to avoid the risk of unacceptable levels of climate change (see also National Research Council, 2002 Pittock, 2006 Schellnhuber et al, 2006 Steffen, 2006 Time Magazine, 2006).


Few previous studies have explored the influence of group memberships, such as churches, community organizations, or voluntary associations on hurricane evacuation. Buckland and Rahman's study of floods in several communities in Canada found that the more community organizations a person was a member of, the less likely they were to evacuate. Two studies have explored the role of religious organizations on the evacuation process in areas where the church was central to the community, including research around the Teton Dam floods, where the majority of the population was Mormon (Golec 1980) and the Toccoa Falls Dam flood in Toccoa, Georgia, which killed 39 on the campus of a fundamentalist Christian university.

Quick Snowmelt

Cant portion of their annual precipitation in the form of snow. It is possible for warm early spring rains to fall oil the snowpack, causing much faster runoff than normal (Bolt ct al., 1975 Church, 1988), Another source of snowmelt is the subsurface introduction of heat from volcanic activity. Large volcanoes can be high enough to support permanent snow and ice cover. High temperatures associated with volcanic activity lead to the instantaneous melting of snow and ice. The melt water is commonly mixed with pyroclastic debris to form lahars (Smith, 1996).


In such a situation, the leaders of the Church have an opportunity and a duty, namely to proclaim the truth, and to emphasise that action must be taken in accord with the long-term needs of humanity. Church leaders are not constrained by short-term political pressures or by the need to court popularity and they do not have to seek votes in order to remain in office. Speaking the truth may and probably will be unpopular, but this is not surprising. Indeed, their vocation as followers of Christ is not to be popular but to speak the truth.


Lachenbruch, Mechanics of Thermal Contraction Cracks and Ice-Wedge Polygons in Permafrost (1962), is a classic paper on the quantitative interpretation of the formation of ice-wedge polygons in permafrost. Troy L. Pewe, Richard E. Church, and MarvinJ. Andresen, Origin andPaleoclimatic Significance of Large-Scale Patterned Ground in the Donnelly Dome Area, Alaska (1969), discusses the origin of ice-wedge casts and relict permafrost in central Alaska and offers paleoclimatic interpretations. R. Dale Guthrie, Frozen Fauna of the Mammoth Steppe (1990), discusses fossil carcasses of Ice Age mammals preserved in permafrost. Troy L. Pewe, Geologic Hazards of the Fairbanks Area, Alaska (1982), a highly illustrated work, contains an up-to-date presentation of the greatest geologic hazard to life in polar areas problems posed by seasonally and perennially frozen ground. G.H. Johnston (ed.), Permafrost Engineering Design and Construction (1981), is a comprehensive book on construction...


Accordingly, water as a natural element enjoyed a special value and its use was always bound by moral responsibilities. In spite of scientific advances, the attentive-ness of churchly moral teachings and practices of care are concentrated on areas of settlement. Therefore, the present-day concrete concerns for acute water scarcity is decisive in poor countries. This is showed by the organization of a conference of Ecumenical Water Networks (EWN). As an initiative of churches, organizations, and movements, it pursues the goal of protecting and guaranteeing of water supply for all people in the world, promoting community initiatives and projects to overcome the water crisis, and ensuring that the collective Christian voice will be heard in the debate on water problems. The Pope sent a message on March 27, 2007, to the Director of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Jacques Diouf, that may be able to illustrate the way of thinking that comes from a religiously based ethic. It...


Ahamed, M., Verma, S., Kumar, A. & Siddiqui, M. K. J. (2005) Environmental exposure to lead and its correlation with biochemical indices in children. Sci. Total. Environ 346, 48-55. Albarede, F. & Beard, B. L. (2004) Analytical methods for non-traditional isotopes. Geochemistry of Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes, edited by Johnson, C. M., Beard, B. L. and Albarede, F., pp. 113-152, Mineralogi-cal Society of America, Washington. Alleman, L. Y., Church, T. M., Ganguli, P., Veron, A. J., Hamelin, B. & Flegal, A. R. (2001a) Role of oceanic circulation on contaminant lead distribution in the South Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2855-2876. Alleman, L. Y., Church, T. M., Veron, A. J., Kim, G., Hamelin, B. & Flegal, A. R. (2006b) Isotopic evidence of contaminant lead in the South Atlantic troposphere and surface waters. Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2811-2827. Alleman, L. Y., Hamelin, B., Veron, A. J., Miquel, J.-C. & Heussner, S. (2000) Lead sources and transfer in the coastal Mediterranean Evidence...

Pamela P McVety

Ms McVety has a master's degree in zoology from the University of South Florida and has worked for the State of Florida's Department of Environmental Protection for over 30 years. She began her career in dredge and fill permitting and worked for the first four Secretaries of the Department of Environmental Protection in policy development and coordination. She was the Director of the Division of Marine Resources and Executive Coordinator (Deputy Secretary) for Ecosystem Management and Water Policy. She finished her paid career in the Florida Park Service in July 2003 and currently does volunteer work for the Presbyterian Church

The death of Nature

Prior to the second half of the seventeenth century the dominant philosophy of Nature outside of the Church was Hermeticism. In the Hermetic philosophy the world was understood organically, that is, as akin to a living organism. The modern distinction between animate and inanimate objects was not recognised rocks, metals and the elements were not seen as passive but animated by an internal principle.6 So, for example, metals grow in the earth according to their own principle rather than due to the influence Modern science's separation of the knower and the known needed vigorous promotion and there was no proselytiser more committed than the father of modern chemistry, Robert Boyle, who laid down the rules for experimentation endorsed by the Royal Society in the seventeenth century.17 In his 1686 book A Free Enquiry into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature, Boyle imagined the world to be like a puppet moved by a divine force that can overrule any mechanical processes that may be...

Final Years

In 1684 he wrote the pope, pleading for a release from his obligations. He wanted to return to Florence, where his days had been happiest. he was officially granted his request, but right before leaving he was asked to make a detour to help strengthen a new church in schwerin. unfortunately, the priest whom steno was to be helping became ill, and steno's brief delay in northern Germany was extended two years. Years of overwork, sleep deprivation, fasting, and not taking care of his physical needs took their toll, and steno himself fell gravely ill. he died at age 48, on November 25, 1686, in schwerin. his only belongings were a few worn-out garments. steno was not buried until 11 months later. his body was shipped from hamburg to Florence in a crate that supposedly contained books. seamen would have been hesitant to transport the crate if they had known its true contents. steno's remains were buried in the crypt of the Medici in the san Lorenzo church. steno's scientific career was...

Process Description

Unlike some architectural coatings, product coatings must provide functional protection as well as an aesthetic function. Powder coatings are recently introduced substitutions for traditional coatings that are finding a place in the market. Because powder coatings contain no solvent and most of the waste generated can be recycled, equipment manufacturers view powder coatings as a way of meeting some restrictive EPA standards. Coupled with the savings in energy and labor, there can be increased productivity. It is expected that the current share of the powder coating market (5 to 6 percent in 1983) will increase to 15 percent by 1993. Some European coating shops report that over 70 percent of all new production lines being installed are powder (Church 1984). Brewer 1980 Church 1984 USEPA 1986, SME 1987 Lorton 1988, Huisingh 1985 Church, F.L., ed. 1984. Powder Coating Sales Reach Near-Boom Levels. Reprint from Modern Metals. January 1984.

Resource Guide

Contemporary Climatology (Prentice-Hall, 1999) Sawyer, C.N., McCarty, P.L., and Parkin, G.F. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003) Shanley, Robert A. Presidential Influence and Climate Change (Greenwood Press, 1992) Siedler, Gerold, Church, John, and Gould, John (eds). Ocean Circulation and Climate Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean (Academic Press, 2001)

Signs of Progress

Third, many evangelical Christian groups have come to view combating climate change to be an obligation of faith. At first, these groups promoted individual responsibility to conserve. But some prominent church leaders have recently taken their cause to Washington, urging the federal government to take a more aggressive stance in confronting the issue. In early 2006, for example, a coalition of evangelical leaders issued An Evangelical Call to Action, asking Congress and the Bush administration to restrict carbondioxide emissions.22 That call triggered some fierce debates inside the evangelical community. But the increased attention on this issue among both evangelicals and a wide array of other religious groups, including Roman Catholics and Jews, has heightened awareness among the general public and caught the ears of Republican leaders in Congress and the administration.

Princeton university

Originally founded at Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1746 as the College of New Jersey, it relocated to Princeton in 1756 and was renamed Princeton University in 1896. Princeton was the fourth institution of higher education in the United States to conduct classes. Princeton has never had any official religious affiliation, rare among American universities of its age. At one time, it had close ties to the Presbyterian Church, but today it is nonsectarian and makes no religious demands on its students. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University.

Notes and References

IPCC (Climate Change 2007 WG1, Ch5), based on data from, J. A. Church and N. J. White, A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise (Geophysical Research Letters 33 1 , 2006) S. J. Holgate and P. L. Woodworth, Evidence for enhanced coastal sea level rise during the 1990s (Geophysical Research Letters 31 7 L07305, 2004) and E. W. Leuliette, R. S. Nerem, and G. T. Mitchum, Calibration of TOPEX Poseidon and Jason altimeter data to construct a continuous record of mean sea level change (Marine Geodesy 27 1-2 79-94, 2004).

Kazakhstan 575

Recognizing the importance of energy conservation in decreasing global warming and climate change, Kansas provides assistance to low-income residents to make their homes more energy-efficient through the Kansas Warm Homes project. Volunteers from churches and civic and community organizations distribute energy conservation kits that include plastic window coverings, weather stripping, rope caulking, switch plate insulators, a door sweep, and florescent light bulbs. Volunteers also assist those who are unable to install kits on their own. The Kansas Energy Office of the Kansas Corporation Commission and the Kansas Housing Resources Corporation of the Kansas Development Finance Authority provide funding for the project.


Peter also spent much of his life devoting time to studying and promoting the impact of science on society and its moral obligation. He was an active member of the Atomic Scientists' Association serving on its Council from 1952 to 1959 and editing its journal from 1953 to 1955. In later years he became President of the Science Secretariat of Pax Romana, the bulletin of which he edited. He encouraged Catholic scientists to integrate their studies and belief and to publicise their work effectively, emphasizing the need for the Church to be thorough and professional with regard to the use of scientific advice and comment. He worked closely with the Templeton Foundation, the Newman Association and many other organisations to promote the integration of science and religion. Peter achieved eminence in his scientific work and strove to play his part in the life of the Church to the full. All who had the great fortune of knowing him personally will sorely miss such a great scientist and a...

Industrial Changes

So competitive is modern manufacturing that the rights of the workers are often ignored, and they are treated simply as units of production. This is an affront to their dignity as human beings, and over the years the Church has insisted that their rights are respected. A whole series of Papal Encyclicals, Rerum Novarum in 1891, Quadragesimo Anno in 1931 and Tertio Millennio Adveniente in 2000, together with many addresses on various occasions, have described the rights of workers and how they may be implemented.

Belch And A Blast

Military significance became apparent to the USA. In 1958, in fear of a Soviet military strike, Camp Century was constructed within the ice sheet so that a future counterattack might be made. The ultimate plan appears to have been to construct a vast military site, holding up to 600 nuclear missiles that could be moved around without fear of detection via a 4,000 kilometre underground railway system. Camp Century was the first phase to see whether such a scheme was possible. It was strictly men-only, with up to 250 individuals staying in an underground camp that did not want for anything. In addition to the accommodation there were a cinema, library, church, chemist, gym, barber-shop and research labs, all accessed off a main street over 330 metres long electricity was provided by a nuclear reactor. As we know, however, ice flows. A team of 50 men in the camp were dedicated solely to keeping the tunnels clear. In spite of this, attempts to build and operate a railway failed...


Social capital was measured in two ways, including organizational participation and the number and location of friends and family. Organizational participation variables were supportive of our hypothesis. Respondents who reported that they were members of a church were 11 (95 CI 3 , 19 ) less likely to have evacuated compared with those who were not church members. Members of business or civic organization (e.g., Rotary, Ruritan, or the American Legion) were 16 (95 CI 5 , 28 ) less likely to have evacuated when compared with those who did not report membership this type of organization. Those who attended more church services or organizational meetings per month were no more or less likely to have evacuated than those who attended fewer meetings. There was also no difference in evacuation for respondents if the organizations they participated in provided relief services to those affected by Hurricane Isabel or if the organizations provided information about Hurricane Isabel to the...


The eastern churches have remained especially true to the approach of early theologians. That approach tries to overcome the Greek creation myth in that it interprets the creature as God's self-revelation and as proof of his love for man. The function of the creature consists of its usefulness to man's salvation. Because the creature is contained in man, it shares his identification to take part in holy life and may be deified through the same grace as man (Panagopulos, 1987).


From this impressive beginning, the study of biology languished in the early Middle Ages, a period of theological, rather than scientific, study. In the 12th century, several universities in Italy revived the study of anatomy. Their focus was on human anatomy as a method of training physicians. The dissection of cadavers brought reproaches from the Catholic Church but this work continued and, in 1543, Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius published his landmark study of human anatomy, The Fabric of the Human Body.

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