Develop Charisma and Become More Likable
Charismatic animals are most often the focus of conservation efforts, but much of the biological world is potentially at extinction risk from current human activities. Chapters in this section address some potential concerns about biodiversity and extinction in plants and microbes.
Surviving in the frigid Arctic through months of winter darkness and roaming vast areas over the frozen oceans, few species are as charismatic and photogenic as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) (see Figure 14.1). Sitting at the top of the Arctic marine food web, polar bears provide insight on the status, health and functioning of marine ecosystems over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Having evolved from a grizzly brown bear (U. arctos) ancestor in a rapid burst of evolution (Waits et al, 1999), polar bears evolved a life history pattern dependent on the sea ice. With this specialization, numerous morphological and physiological adaptations followed.
A tiny fraction of all known species. They are often either charismatic species, such as elephants, whales, and migrating waterfowl, or useful species, such as fish, timber, and domestic animal stocks. The Global Conservation Organization (WWF) marine ecosystem indicators are an attempt to apply population measures with a rapid, standardized sampling protocol (Wilkinson 2000). The Living Planet Index (Loh 2002) and species trend indices (e.g., Gregory et al. 2002) are a population approach based on a small set of species selected to represent the major groups. The Natural Capital Index and the Biodiversity Intactness Index are in principle both population-based measures.
For young students, the excitement of exploring prehistoric worlds is more compelling and less scary than confronting the fear of global climate change. The recent Ice Age movies presented a climate change message in concert with charismatic ice age megafauna, introducing the topic in a fun, rather than threatening, manner. Children's love of dinosaurs is, in part, facilitated by the fact that they are scary but extinct. Climate change, while more conceptual than dinosaurs, is less threatening when studied as history than it is when presented as a looming threat. As always, creation of tools for teachers that adhere to state standards will result in more usable education assets.
This sort of lazy indifference mattered. By 2004, under the charismatic leadership of Sir Digby Jones, the CBI was becoming increasingly hostile to environmental regulations and was repeatedly warning that they would cause UK-based companies to relocate (see, for example, CBI, 2004). The CBI had little evidence to substantiate this assertion. When, in January 2005, the House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee asked Sir Digby for an example of a company that had moved overseas as a result of environmental pressures, he said there were 'nil' (House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, 2005).
When the subject of extinctions in the geological past comes up, nearly everyone's thoughts turn to dinosaurs. It may well be true that these long-extinct beasts mean more to most children than the vast majority of living creatures. One could even go so far as to paraphrase Voltaire and maintain that if dinosaurs had never existed it would have been necessary to invent them, if only as a metaphor for obsolescence. To refer to a particular machine as a dinosaur would certainly do nothing for its market value. The irony is that the metaphor is now itself obsolete. The modern scientific view of dinosaurs differs immensely from the old one of lumbering, inefficient creatures tottering to their final decline. Their success as dominant land vertebrates through 165 million years of the Earth's history is, indeed, now mainly regarded with wonder and even admiration. If, as is generally thought, the dinosaurs were killed off by an asteroid at the end of the Cretaceous, that is something for...
Unlike North America and Australia, many species of megafauna can still be found living in Southeast Asia. These include such charismatic species as the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), the Javan and Sumatran rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros sondaicus and Dicerorhinus sumatraensis), the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and the tiger (Panthera tigris). Southeast Asia's extinct megafauna is less well known to general audiences, but include several species of stegodons, hyenas and bovids (e.g. Stegodon orientalis, Pachycrocuta brevirostris and Naemorhedus sumatraensis respectively), as well as the giant tapir (Megatapirus augustus) and the giant ape (Gigantopithecus black). The ecological requirements of those twenty species of megafauna listed in Table 1 are explored below.
CSE helps the public to search for solutions that people and communities can implement, and or push the government to create a framework for people and communities to act on their own. CSE is considered one of India's leading environmental nongovernmental organizations specializing in sustainable natural resource management. Its strategy of knowledge-based activism has won it wide respect and admiration for its quality of campaigns, research, and publications worldwide. CSE promotes solutions for India's numerous environmental threats, including ecological poverty and extensive land degradation, and rapidly-growing toxic degradation of uncontrolled industrialization and economic growth.
Most emphasis in biodiversity conservation has been on the preservation of a few charismatic and conspicuous organisms, or of pristine environments within national parks and reserves. In fact such organisms are a very small fraction of threatened biodiversity and such habitats represent only a small percentage of total land area (Western and Pearl 1989 Pimentcl et al. 1992). Concern about biodiversity loss during agricultural intensification has usually emphasized the transformation from natural forest to agriculture, while the transformation from low-intensity forms of management to high-intensity ones, which is today the main feature of change, has been largely ignored. It is generally accepted that the greatest biodiversity per unit area exists in tropica forests (Wilson 1988), and since these forests are being destroyed at such a rapid rate (World Resources Institute 1990), the bulk of the world's efforts at cataloguing and conserving biodiversity are justifiably aimed at these...
For many natural ecosystems, impacts have limited reversibility. Planned adaptation opportunities for offsetting potentially deleterious impacts are often limited due to fixed habitat regions (e.g., the Wet Tropics and upland rainforests in Australia and the alpine zone in both Australia and New Zealand). One adaptive strategy is to provide corridors to facilitate migration of species under future warming. This will require changes in land tenure in many regions, with significant economic costs, although schemes to promote such connectivity are already under way in some Australian states (see Section 11.2.5). Another strategy is translocation of species. This is a very expensive measure, but it may be considered desirable for some iconic, charismatic or particularly vulnerable species.
The ethical orientations of environmental movements range from the conservation-oriented utilitarians who look to preserve resources for human use, to those with preservation-oriented perspectives who attribute intrinsic value to ecological systems, biodiversity, and charismatic species. Utilitarian perspectives are often characterized as anthropocen-tric because they ascribe rights only to present and future generations of humans. The eco-centric and bio-centric perspectives extend the domain of ethical consideration to living species and assemblages of species. The eco-centric and bio-centric perspectives have their origins in the Romanticism of Thoreau and other 19th century nature writing. These ethical views come into conflict in questions about the human use of natural resource and wilderness.
Over time, the popularization of charismatic fauna in the media has literally increased the value of certain animals. Images of soaring eagles sell pickup trucks, wild mustangs sell cigarettes, and a cartoon tiger sells cereal. Popular tourist destinations are marketed by promises of seeing grizzly bears, jaguars,
In the second case, recovery of the target implies also recovery of other species. This is more often claimed than substantiated target species are often relatively large, charismatic species and therefore also relatively adaptable. For instance, the recovery of a woodpecker species implies that the volume of its prey species have also recovered (probably due to deadwood retention) but not necessarily the
Large segment of the public (American Museum of Natural History, 1998). In addition, there is a tendency to place greater value on the more familiar and charismatic in nature rather than recognizing the integral roles and importance of all species, even insects, worms, fungi, and microbes, in various ecosystems (Wilson, 1992 Novacek, 2007).
Although recognition of the looming freshwater crisis is growing, freshwater systems and their inhabitants are often still forgotten in local, national, regional, and international processes and plans. In part, this is due to the hidden nature of many freshwater species - they are literally 'out of sight and out of mind' underneath the water's surface. Additionally, many freshwater species are indistinct and small and thus do not engender the same emotional response as the large, colorful, charismatic species found in terrestrial and marine environments. Knowledge about freshwater species and habitats also lags behind that of their terrestrial counterparts. For example, about 3000 freshwater fish species are currently known in the Amazon Basin, but experts estimate that up to 5000 species will be discovered once the basin has been fully explored. A low profile and a lack of knowledge about freshwater systems' biology and ecology make the need for increased awareness from local to...
The key issue in the applicability of indicators is access to reliable and consistent information, particularly when we are attempting to apply indices at continental or global scales. The quality of knowledge varies greatly across biological groups (e.g., from very good for birds to very poor for soil microbes). This reflects not their relative ecological importance but their charisma and ease of study. This unevenness of observation has geographic consequences The tropics and the oceans are less well inventoried than the temperate landmasses because they have a greater biodiversity and a shorter record of scientific study. To an extent, broadening the information sources to include traditional or indigenous knowledge can help alleviate the problem for the more prominent groups, but it is unreasonable to expect indigenous people to have knowledge about subjects that may not have seemed necessary or even visible to them.
Explored, and making his way as far as Prudhoe Bay. The success of this second land expedition earned him a knighthood as well as an honorary degree from Oxford. As the Admiralty was not contemplating any further Arctic voyages, Franklin accepted an appointment as governor of Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), where he arrived in January of 1837. Although he earned the admiration of many in this position, he managed to provoke the ire of a key political faction loyal to his colonial secretary, who eventually engineered his ouster in 1843.
Diminish, and indeed there is evidence (both anecdotal and quantitative) that sea ice already has diminished. If the sea-ice extent were to continue to diminish, then the consequences could be quite significant, from changes in physical effects already mentioned to the opening of the famed Northwest Passage through the Arctic Ocean for shipping, to diminished habitats for some of the most charismatic life forms on the planet, such as polar bears and penguins. What has happened in the past, and what will happen
Early Pliocene fauna was transitional, favoring grazers over browsers, as grasslands and savannas expanded in central North America and Africa, thereby replacing woodlands and their associated fauna. Charismatic Pliocene fauna included mammoths, mastodons, camels, and hippopotamus in the mid-Northern Hemisphere latitudes, while large turtles and marsupials were found in the southern hemisphere. Pliocene high-Arctic fauna was primarily Eurasian, characterized by now extinct species of beavers, badgers, deer, and caniids, the presence of which is consistent with mixed-evergreen forest vegetation. The Pliocene deposits of eastern North America revealed mostly Eurasian fauna, most notably new species red panda.
All geo-engineers have been inspired by the pioneering work of James Lovelock. Key suggestions about spray generation are due to Lowell Wood and Tom Stevenson. NASA and the ISCCP have been extremely generous with information and patient in explaining how we can use it. Their continued work on understanding and protecting the home planet has earned respect and admiration from many countries round the world. Funding for work on Cloudia was provided by the Discovery Channel and organized by Impossible Pictures. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this chapter are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Even though scientists of various kinds are pushing broadened views of biodiversity, the public activists are, as reflected in legislation, budgets, and activity, favoring the charismatic megafauna, the warm, fuzzy, and appealing organisms, particularly the vertebrates, not the little things that run the world (Wilson, 1987). Administration of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the strongest environmental law in the U.S., currently only impacts what can be done to listed species and their habitats, including activities on privately held lands and waters.
The Power Of Charisma
You knowthere's something about you I like. I can't put my finger on it and it's not just the fact that you will download this ebook but there's something about you that makes you attractive.