The costs of climate change both the costs of the impacts and of response adaptation and mitigation

• Only a small amount of literature on the costs of climate change impacts could be found for assessment [5.6, 6.5.3, 7.5]. Debate still surrounds the topic of how to measure impacts, and which metrics should be used to ensure comparability [2.2.3,,20.9].

• The literature on adaptation costs and benefits is limited and fragmented [17.2.3]. It focuses on sea-level rise and agriculture, with more limited assessments for energy demand, water resources and transport. There is an emphasis on the USA and other OECD countries, with only a few studies for developing countries [17.2.3].

Better understanding of the relative costs of climate change impacts and adaptation allows policy-makers to consider optimal strategies for implementation of adaptation policies, especially the amount and the timing [].

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