Table of Contents

Executive summary 359

7.1 Introduction: scope, summary of TAR conclusions and key issues 359

7.1.1 Key issues 359

7.1.2 Scope of the chapter 360

7.1.3 Human systems in context 361

7.1.4 Conclusions of the IPCC Third Assessment

Report 361

7.2 Current sensitivity/vulnerability 361

Box 7.1 Impacts of the 2003 heatwave in Europe 362

7.3 Assumptions about future trends 363

7.4 Key future impacts and vulnerabilities 364

7.4.1 General effects 364

Box 7.2 Environmental migration 365

7.4.2 Systems of interest 366

Box 7.3 The impact of recent hurricane losses 369

7.4.3 Key vulnerabilities 374

7.5 Costs and other socio-economic issues 376

Box 7.4 Vulnerabilities to extreme weather events in megadeltas in a context of multiple stresses: the case of Hurricane Katrina 377

7.6 Adaptation: practices, options and constraints 378

7.6.1 General perspectives 378

7.6.2 Industry 378

7.6.3 Services 379

7.6.4 Utilities/infrastructure 381

7.6.5 Human settlement 381

Box 7.5 Climate-change adaptation and local government 382

7.6.6 Social issues 382

7.6.7 Key adaptation issues 383

7.7 Conclusions: implications for sustainable development 384

7.8 Key uncertainties and research priorities ...385 References 385

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