Table of Contents

Executive summary

2.1 Introduction

2.2 New developments in approaches

2.2.1 Frameworks for CCIAV assessment

2.2.2 Advances in impact assessment

2.2.3 Advances in adaptation assessment

2.2.4 Advances in vulnerability assessment

2.2.5 Advances in integrated assessment

2.2.6 Development of risk-management frameworks

2.2.7 Managing uncertainties and confidence levels.

2.3 Development in methods

2.3.1 Thresholds and criteria for risk

2.3.2 Stakeholder involvement

2.3.3 Defining coping ranges

2.3.4 Communicating uncertainty and risk

2.3.5 Data needs for assessment

2.4 Characterising the future

2.4.1 Why and how do we characterise future conditions?

2.4.2 Artificial experiments

135 Box2.1 Definitions of future characterisations 145

2.4.3 Sensitivity analysis 146

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