Table of Contents

Executive summary 471

10.1 Summary of knowledge assessed in the Third Assessment Report 471

10.1.1 Climate change impacts in Asia 471

10.1.2 Vulnerability and adaptive strategies 472

10.2 Current sensitivity and vulnerability 472

10.2.1 Asia: regional characteristics 472

10.2.2 Observed climate trends, variability and extreme events 472

10.2.3 Observed changes in extreme climatic events 472

10.2.4 Impacts of observed changes in climate trends, variability and extreme events 475

10.3 Assumptions about future trends 478

10.3.1 Climate 478

10.3.2 Socio-economic 479

10.4 Key future impacts and vulnerabilities 479

10.4.1 Agriculture and food security 479

10.4.2 Hydrology and water resources 483

10.4.3 Coastal and low lying areas 484

10.4.4 Natural ecosystems and biodiversity 485

10.4.5 Human health 487

10.4.6 Human dimensions 487

10.5 Adaptation: sector-specific practices, options and constraints 490

10.5.1 Agriculture and food security 490

10.5.2 Hydrology and water resources 490

10.5.3 Coastal and low lying areas 491

10.5.4 Natural ecosystems and biodiversity 491

10.5.5 Human health 491

10.5.6 Human dimensions 491

10.5.7 Key constraints and measures to strengthen adaptation 492

10.6 Case studies 493

10.6.1 Megadeltas in Asia 493

10.6.2 The Himalayan glaciers 493

10.7 Implications for sustainable development ...494

10.7.1 Poverty and illiteracy 494

10.7.2 Economic growth and equitable development 494

10.7.3 Compliance with and governance of

Multilateral Environmental Agreements 495

10.7.4 Conservation of natural resources 495

10.8 Key uncertainties, research gaps and priorities 495

10.8.1 Uncertainties 495

10.8.2 Confidence levels and unknowns 496

10.8.3 Research gaps and priorities 497

References 497

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