Table of Contents

Executive summary 619

14.1 Introduction 619

14.1.1 Key findings from Third Assessment Report

14.1.2 Key differences from TAR 620

14.2 Current sensitivity/vulnerability 620

14.2.1 Freshwater resources 621

14.2.2 Ecosystems 622

14.2.3 Coastal regions 622

Box 14.1 Accelerating wildfire and ecosystem disturbance dynamics 623

14.2.4 Agriculture, forestry and fisheries 623

14.2.5 Human health 625

14.2.6 Human settlements 625

14.2.7 Tourism and recreation 626

14.2.8 Energy, industry and transportation 626

14.3 Assumptions about future trends 626

14.3.1 Climate 626

14.3.2 Social, economic and institutional context 627

14.4 Key future impacts and vulnerabilities 627

14.4.1 Freshwater resources 627

Box 14.2 Climate change adds challenges to managing the Columbia River system 628

14.4.2 Ecosystems 629

14.4.3 Coastal regions 630

14.4.4 Agriculture, forestry and fisheries 631

14.4.5 Human health 632

14.4.6 Human settlements 632

Box 14.3 North American cities integrate impacts across multiple scales and sectors 633

14.4.7 Tourism and recreation 634

14.4.8 Energy, industry and transportation 634

14.4.9 Interacting impacts 635

14.5 Adaptation: practices, options and constraints 635

14.5.1 Practices and options 636

14.5.2 Mainstreaming adaptation 637

14.5.3 Constraints and opportunities 638

14.6 Case studies 639

14.7 Conclusions: implications for sustainable development 639

14.8 Key uncertainties and research priorities...639 References 640

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