Table of Contents

Executive summary 747

18.1 Introduction 748

18.1.1 Background and rationale 748

Box 18.1. Definitions of terms 749

18.1.2 Differences, similarities and complementarities between adaptation and mitigation 750

18.1.3 Structure of the chapter 750

18.2 Summary of relevant knowledge in the IPCC Third Assessment Report 751

18.3 Decision processes, stakeholder objectives and scale 752

18.3.1 The nature of the decision problem 752

18.3.2 Stakeholder roles and spatial and temporal scales 753

18.4 Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation and damages avoided 754

18.4.1 Trade-offs and synergies in global-scale analysis 754

18.4.2 Consideration of costs and damages avoided and/or benefits gained 756

18.4.3 Inter-relationships within regions and sectors 757

Box 18.2. Analysis of stabilisation scenarios 758

18.5 Inter-relationships in a climate policy portfolio 760

18.6 Response capacity and development pathways 763

18.7 Elements for effective implementation 766

18.7.1 Climate policy and institutions 766

Box 18.3. Mainstreaming 768

18.7.2 Inter-relationships in practice 769

18.8 Uncertainties, unknowns and priorities for research 770

References 771

Supplementary material for this chapter is available on the CD-ROM accompanying this report.

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